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Feudalism. At the bottom of the system were the conquered Anglo-Saxons, ... Decline of Feudalism. Due to the House of Commons, growth of medieval towns resulted in an ...

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historical background
Historical Background
  • 1066 Normans gained control of England
  • Normans (North Men) were originally the Vikings
  • Settled into Normandy, adopting French ways
william duke of normandy
William Duke of Normandy
  • Most significant contribution was Feudalism
  • William also ordered first comprehensive land survey called The Doomsday Book
feudalism
Feudalism
  • Political and economic system of government established by William
  • Based on hierarchy
  • King is at top...owns all the land
  • King kept a forth of the land for himself, gave a fourth to the church
  • Rest went to noblemen, mostly noble loyal Norman barons
feudalism5
Feudalism
  • Noblemen swore an allegiance to the king and supplied him with knights to protect the kingdom
  • The knights swore an allegiance to the barons
feudalism6
Feudalism
  • At the bottom of the system were the conquered Anglo-Saxons, now known as serfs/peasants
  • Serfs were indebted to the barons... worked the land
  • Everyone was directly/indirectly responsible/loyal to the Kings
role of women
Role of Women
  • Position of a woman depended on that of her husband or father
  • A woman and her property were always under the custody of a man
role of women8
Role of Women
  • If widowed, her eldest son would be in charge or her husband's overlord
  • Held the same rank as her husband
  • If husband absent at war, woman in charge of land
role of women9
Role of Women
  • Primary job was homemaker
  • Common duties included sewing and spinning
death of william
Death of William
  • After William died, he appointed Henry I
  • When Henry I died, anarchy in England (1135)‏
death of william11
Death of William
  • Eventually, Matilda (Henry's daughter) and Stephen (Henry's nephew) were battling for control.
  • The battle continued for years, but in the end, Matilda's son took over and became Henry II.
henry ii
Henry II
  • Established juries, English common law, and royal courts
  • Famous wife, Eleanor of Aquitaine (former French queen who owned vast land)‏
eleanor of aquitaine
Eleanor of Aquitaine
  • Eleanor brought the idea of chivalry
  • Henry II and Eleanor parented the legendary king, Richard the Lionheart
code of chivalry
Code of Chivalry
  • Code was based on four element:
    • Piety
    • Loyalty
    • Bravery
    • Strength
  • Code encouraged knights/men to honor and protect ladies
  • Holy quests (Crusades)‏
the crusades
The Crusades
  • 1096-1270
  • Eight major crusades
  • Christians attempting to reclaim Jerusalem from Turkish rule
the crusades richard the lionheart
The Crusades – Richard the Lionheart
  • Established leadership of the Roman Catholic Church
  • Richard the Lionheart spent several years fighting in France
the crusades17
The Crusades
  • Knights originally took part in The Crusades as a testament of their piety, but later it was for personal gain
  • Crusades fostered the development of money economy
prince john
Prince John
  • While Richard was away, his brother, John (the villain in Robin Hood legends) plotted against him.
  • When Richard died, John became king.
magna carta
Magna Carta
  • Because of The Crusades, the royal treasury was empty.
  • John signed The Magna Carta (Great Charter) which limited royal authority and granted more power to the barons.
henry iii edward i
Henry III/Edward I
  • Under John's son, Henry III, an advisory council of barons was formed called Parliament.
  • Under Edward I, commoners were allowed to participate in Parliament, introducing the House of Commons and the House of Lords (still in existence today in modern Britain).
decline of feudalism
Decline of Feudalism
  • Due to the House of Commons, growth of medieval towns resulted in an increased trade that was stimulated in part by The Crusades.
decline of feudalism23
Decline of Feudalism
  • Merchants and craftspeople formed guilds
    • Controlled the flow and price of goods
    • Apprentice to master
  • Wealth no longer was based solely on land ownership
decline of feudalism24
Decline of Feudalism
  • Commerce centers
  • University learning
    • Oxford University
  • Advanced study of science and math
  • Effort to end church corruption
    • Ideas spread to Europe (Martin Luther)‏
the hundred years war
The Hundred Years' War
  • The church reform efforts took place during a struggle between England and France, known as The Hundred Years' War.
  • This happened during the reign of Edward III.
the hundred years war26
The Hundred Years' War
  • Lasted over a century
  • Several domestic crises
    • Black Death, 1348
    • Peasant's Revolt, 1381
    • Richard II's forced abdication (which brought Henry IV the throne), 1399
the hundred years war27
The Hundred Years' War
  • Victories
    • Henry V's victory over the French at Agincourt
    • French army lifting siege over Orleans (Joan of Arc)‏
  • Ended in 1453
    • England had lost nearly all its French possessions
war of the roses
War of the Roses
  • Two families vied for the throne at the end of The Hundred Years' War
    • House of York (white rose)‏
    • House of Lancaster (red rose)‏
  • Ended in 1485
    • Henry Tudor (L) killed King Richard III (Y)‏
    • Henry Tudor began Henry VII