Historical Background • 1066 Normans gained control of England • Normans (North Men) were originally the Vikings • Settled into Normandy, adopting French ways
William Duke of Normandy • Most significant contribution was Feudalism • William also ordered first comprehensive land survey called The Doomsday Book
Feudalism • Political and economic system of government established by William • Based on hierarchy • King is at top...owns all the land • King kept a forth of the land for himself, gave a fourth to the church • Rest went to noblemen, mostly noble loyal Norman barons
Feudalism • Noblemen swore an allegiance to the king and supplied him with knights to protect the kingdom • The knights swore an allegiance to the barons
Feudalism • At the bottom of the system were the conquered Anglo-Saxons, now known as serfs/peasants • Serfs were indebted to the barons... worked the land • Everyone was directly/indirectly responsible/loyal to the Kings
Role of Women • Position of a woman depended on that of her husband or father • A woman and her property were always under the custody of a man
Role of Women • If widowed, her eldest son would be in charge or her husband's overlord • Held the same rank as her husband • If husband absent at war, woman in charge of land
Role of Women • Primary job was homemaker • Common duties included sewing and spinning
Death of William • After William died, he appointed Henry I • When Henry I died, anarchy in England (1135)
Death of William • Eventually, Matilda (Henry's daughter) and Stephen (Henry's nephew) were battling for control. • The battle continued for years, but in the end, Matilda's son took over and became Henry II.
Henry II • Established juries, English common law, and royal courts • Famous wife, Eleanor of Aquitaine (former French queen who owned vast land)
Eleanor of Aquitaine • Eleanor brought the idea of chivalry • Henry II and Eleanor parented the legendary king, Richard the Lionheart
Code of Chivalry • Code was based on four element: • Piety • Loyalty • Bravery • Strength • Code encouraged knights/men to honor and protect ladies • Holy quests (Crusades)
The Crusades • 1096-1270 • Eight major crusades • Christians attempting to reclaim Jerusalem from Turkish rule
The Crusades – Richard the Lionheart • Established leadership of the Roman Catholic Church • Richard the Lionheart spent several years fighting in France
The Crusades • Knights originally took part in The Crusades as a testament of their piety, but later it was for personal gain • Crusades fostered the development of money economy
Prince John • While Richard was away, his brother, John (the villain in Robin Hood legends) plotted against him. • When Richard died, John became king.
Magna Carta • Because of The Crusades, the royal treasury was empty. • John signed The Magna Carta (Great Charter) which limited royal authority and granted more power to the barons.
Henry III/Edward I • Under John's son, Henry III, an advisory council of barons was formed called Parliament. • Under Edward I, commoners were allowed to participate in Parliament, introducing the House of Commons and the House of Lords (still in existence today in modern Britain).
Decline of Feudalism • Due to the House of Commons, growth of medieval towns resulted in an increased trade that was stimulated in part by The Crusades.
Decline of Feudalism • Merchants and craftspeople formed guilds • Controlled the flow and price of goods • Apprentice to master • Wealth no longer was based solely on land ownership
Decline of Feudalism • Commerce centers • University learning • Oxford University • Advanced study of science and math • Effort to end church corruption • Ideas spread to Europe (Martin Luther)
The Hundred Years' War • The church reform efforts took place during a struggle between England and France, known as The Hundred Years' War. • This happened during the reign of Edward III.
The Hundred Years' War • Lasted over a century • Several domestic crises • Black Death, 1348 • Peasant's Revolt, 1381 • Richard II's forced abdication (which brought Henry IV the throne), 1399
The Hundred Years' War • Victories • Henry V's victory over the French at Agincourt • French army lifting siege over Orleans (Joan of Arc) • Ended in 1453 • England had lost nearly all its French possessions
War of the Roses • Two families vied for the throne at the end of The Hundred Years' War • House of York (white rose) • House of Lancaster (red rose) • Ended in 1485 • Henry Tudor (L) killed King Richard III (Y) • Henry Tudor began Henry VII