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STDS Chapter 8 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Bacterial or viral diseases that are sexually transmitted through genital/oral/anal contact but also other ... vaginal secretion, other body fluids, IV drugs, piercing, tatoos. ...

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STDS Chapter 8

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Love … Very Carefully!!!

stds or stis
STDs or STIs
  • Bacterial or viral diseases that are sexually transmitted through genital/oral/anal contact but also other conduits
  • Bacterial STIs:
    • can be cured if caught early
  • Viral:
    • can NOT be cured
stds or stis4
STDs or STIs
  • Difference between most common reportable STI and most common STI
    • not all STIs are required to be reported
  • Many if not most (depending on disease and gender) are ASYMPTOMATIC
    • So: can transmit unknowingly
stds or stis5
STDs or STIs
  • Most Common:
    • HPV human papilloma virus (warts)
  • HPV:
    • over 100 different strains
    • cauliflower-like warts in vulva, vagina, penis, pubic area and anus but can be asymptomatic
    • leads to cervical cancer
    • can cause penile and anal cancer
    • 100 MUN female students a year have precancerous changes due to HPV
    • birth control pill interaction
      • hormones in contraceptive promotes changes in cervical cells that make it more vulnerable (squamous cells)
stds or stis6
STDs or STIs
  • HPV (Cont’d):
    • smoking interaction:
      • nicotine metabolites increase cervical cancer risk
    • early sex (13-15) is a risk factor
    • multiple partners, also a risk factor
    • effect of alcohol and drugs:
      • weaken immune system, impair judgment of risk
    • condoms not effective in protecting against HPV:
      • warts can be in areas other than penis, e.g. pubic area, anus
    • no cure
    • 20-33% people have it – some studies report almost 100% incidence but strong immune system can fight it off
stds or stis7
STDs or STIs

HPV (Cont’d):

  • A new vaccine for HPV prevention is available since July ’06
    • the vaccine prevents four strains of HPV, which happen to be the ones that most commonly (70%) cause cervical cancer. The recommendation is to vaccinate girls between ages 9 and 14, before they become sexually active. Girls chosen due to cervical cancer risk
  • New study (Feb. ’08): HPV causes oral cancer in men via oral sex, rivaling oral cancers due to tobacco and alcohol. Vaccine currently being tested in men
stds or stis8
STDs or STIs
  • Chlamydia:
    • most common reportable STI in Canada
    • decrease since 90’s but still very high
    • more in women, but less reporting from men
    • age 15-24 women highest rate
    • 75% women asymptomatic until it spreads to uterus
    • damage to:
      • cervix
      • uterus
      • fallopian tubes
      • peritoneum
      • liver
stds or stis9
STDs or STIs
  • Chlamydia (Cont’d):
    • causes:
      • PID
      • tubal blockage
      • ectopic pregnancies
      • infertility
      • prematurity and low birth weight
stds or stis10
STDs or STIs
  • Chlamydia (Cont’d):
    • males:
      • 50% asymptomatic
      • 50% have urethral discharge
      • burning urination
      • epididymitis
      • infertility
      • Reiter’s syndrome (conjunctivitis and arthritis)
    • if having anal sex:
      • proctitis and proctocolitis
stds or stis11
STDs or STIs
  • Genital Herpes:
    • children of mothers with GH Type II have higher rates of schizophrenia (preliminary study) or other psychoses. Correlational data.
  • Caused by herpes simplex virus, Type I (cold sores) and Type II – both cause the STI
  • Most are asymptomatic:
    • if symptomatic: small, painful blisters on genitals
    • also, fever, painful urination, headaches
stds or stis12
STDs or STIs
  • Genital Herpes (Cont’d):
  • These symptoms last 3 weeks, then virus goes dormant, but still contagious. Symptoms may recur randomly
  • Pregnant women can transfer to fetus, can lead to fatal brain infection
  • No cure, some antiviral drugs lessen severity of symptoms and shorten the outbreak but always contagious
  • Long term: can lead to meningitis, narrowed urethra, increased HIV infection, genital scarring
  • No cure
stds or stis13
STDs or STIs
  • Hepatitis:
    • Viral disease of the liver.
  • Types A, B, C, D, E.
    • Type B most common STI.
    • Next is Type C.
stds or stis14
STDs or STIs
  • Hepatitis (Cont’d):
  • Hep B:
    • Through blood, saliva, semen, vaginal secretion, other body fluids, IV drugs, piercing, tatoos.
  • Symptoms:
    • Enlarged liver, fever, fatigue, jaundice, vomiting. But some asymptomatic. No cure, can lead to liver degeneration and death.
  • Liver cirrhosis, cancer:
    • Second leading cause of cancer world-wide (after smoking).
  • But – there is a vaccine: prevention.
  • 200 times more common than HIV.
stds or stis15
STDs or STIs
  • Hepatitis (Cont’d):
  • Hep C:
    • Can also lead to liver cirrhosis and cancer of the liver. Found in users of IV drugs, nasal coke, tattoos and piercings. Also contaminated water.
stds or stis16
STDs or STIs
  • HIV:
    • Human Immunodeficiency Virus
    • By December ’03 almost 20,000 in Canada reported cases.
    • 67% had died.
  • AIDS:
    • Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
      • Estimate (2003): 56,000 Canadians live with HIV. One third not aware.
      • Worldwide: 40 million have HIV (estimate)
stds or stis17
STDs or STIs
  • AIDS (Cont’d):
    • Transmission:
      • body fluids (not saliva)
      • sex (penis/vagina or penis/anus)
      • contaminated blood
      • hypodermic needles
      • during pregnancy and childbirth
  • Condoms 87% effective for HIV
  • No cure but effective treatments make it a chronic illness
  • Recent studies: health problems of HIV/AIDS patients in middle/old age
stds or stis18
STDs or STIs
    • Caused by neither bacterium nor virus.
  • Trichomonas vaginalis:
    • single cell protozoan, a parasite that attaches to vaginal cells.
    • transmitted mostly through sex, but the organism can survive for some time on toilet seats and other surfaces.
    • more common in women, very widespread (8,000,000 in North America, 170 million worldwide).
stds or stis19
STDs or STIs
  • Men are asymptomatic, 50% women have symptoms:
    • vaginal itch
    • smelly (fishy), frothy vaginal discharge
  • Can cause:
    • PID
    • increased female vulnerability to HIV
    • people with HIV transmit it more easily if they have trichomoniasis
    • in pregnancy, premature birth and/or low birth weight
  • Treatment:
    • Flagyl (metronidazole)
lymphogranuloma lpv
  • So far mostly men/men
  • Same type as chlamydia
  • Much more invasive
  • Through oral, vaginal, anal sex
  • Treatable with antibiotics
  • Symptoms (3-30 days): vaginal painless sore in initial phase
  • Low grade fever
  • Fatigue
  • Muscle and joint aches
stds or stis21
STDs or STIs

Safe Sex vs. safER sex

  • Two monogamous people who have tested negative for STIs or have never had any sexual contact before.
  • Issue of trust.