STDs • Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) • AKA Venereal Disease (VD) • Three main types: • Bacterial • Viral (remain in the body forever) • Parasitic Protozoan
Bacterial STDs • Syphilis • Caused by the bacteria Treponemapallidum • Transmitted through direct contact with a syphilis sore • Sores occur mainly on the external genitals, vagina, anus, or in the rectum. Sores also can occur on the lips and in the mouth. • Transmission of the organism occurs during vaginal, anal, or oral sex.
Bacterial STDs • Gonorrhea • Caused by the bacteria Neisseria gonorrhoeae • Can grow and multiply in the male and female reproductive tracts, the mouth, throat, eyes, and anus. • Male symptoms include a burning sensation when urinating, a white, yellow, or green discharge from the penis, or painful/swollen testicles. • Female symptoms include a painful or burning sensation when urinating, increased vaginal discharge, or vaginal bleeding between periods.
Bacterial STDs Chlamydia • Caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis which can damage a woman's reproductive organs. • Women who have symptoms might have an abnormal vaginal discharge or a burning sensation when urinating. Some women have no signs or symptoms; others have lower abdominal pain, low back pain, nausea, fever, pain during intercourse, or bleeding between menstrual periods. • Men with signs or symptoms might have a discharge from their penis or a burning sensation when urinating. Men might also have burning and itching around the opening of the penis.
Antibiotics • Syphilis—penicillin, tetracyline, doxycycline • Gonorrhea—penicillin, intramuscular injection of ceftriaxone • Chlamydia—azithromycin, doxycycline • Chlamydia and gonorrhea are always treated together. If a person has contracted one of these diseases, they are always treated for both.
Viral STDs • AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) • Caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus • Causes progressive failure of the immune system allows life-threatening opportunistic infections and cancers to thrive. • Infection with HIV occurs by the transfer of blood, semen, vaginal fluid, pre-ejaculate, or breast milk. • Current treatment for HIV infection consists of highly active antiretroviral therapy, or HAART.
Viral STDs • Genital Herpes • Cause by the Herpes Simplex Virus, type 1 or type 2 (HSV-1 or HSV-2) • Symptoms typically appear as one or more blisters on or around the genitals or rectum. The blisters break, leaving tender ulcers (sores) that may take two to four weeks to heal the first time they occur. • Virus can stay in the body indefinitely, though the number of outbreaks tends to decrease over a period of years.
Viral STDs • Genital warts • Caused by the Human Papillomavirus (HPV)—over 40 types of HPV • Symptoms appear as a small bump or groups of bumps in the genital area (warts). They can be small or large, raised or flat, or shaped like a cauliflower. • Cervical cancer usually does not have symptoms until it is quite advanced. For this reason, it is important for women to get regular screening for cervical cancer. • Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis (RRP) causes warts to grow in the throat. It can sometimes block the airway, causing a hoarse voice or troubled breathing.
Treatments/Vaccines • No cure for viral STDs • Antiretrovirals—used to treat HIV • Gardasil—vaccine that helps prevent cervical cancer • 4 main types of HPV that are known to cause cervical cancer (HPV-6, 8, 16, and 18) • Available in 3 separate injections to girls ages 9-26 • Does not treat cancer, or prevent other STDs
Parasitic Protozoans • Trichomoniasis • considered the most common curable STD • About 70% of infected people do not have any signs or symptoms. When trichomoniasis does cause symptoms, they can range from mild irritation to severe inflammation. Some people with symptoms get them within 5 to 28 days after being infected, but others do not develop symptoms until much later. Symptoms can come and go. • Men with trichomoniasis may feel itching or irritation inside the penis, burning after urination or ejaculation, or some discharge from the penis. • Women with trichomoniasis may notice itching, burning, redness or soreness of the genitals, discomfort with urination, or a thin discharge with an unusual smell that can be clear, white, yellowish, or greenish.
Contraceptives • Contraception = BIRTH control, NOT STD control • The only way to completely prevent conception and contraction of STDs is ABSTINENCE.
Male Contraceptives • Vasectomy—the vas deferens of a man are severed, and then tied/sealed in a manner such to prevent ejaculation • Sperm are still produced by the testicles, but they are broken down and absorbed by the body.
Male Contraceptives • Coitus interruptus—also known as the withdrawal method, is a method of birth-control in which a man, during intercourse withdraws his penis from a woman's vagina prior to ejaculation • **This method is the least effective means of contraception because: (1) active sperm can still be transmitted via pre-ejaculate, and (2) it is dependent upon the restraint of the man during intercourse**
Male Contraceptives • Condom—a barrier device most commonly used during sexual intercourse to reduce the probability of pregnancy and spreading sexually transmitted diseases. • It is put on a man's erect penis and physically blocks ejaculated semen from entering the body of a sexual partner.
Female Contraceptives • The Pill—a daily dose of small amounts of estrogens and progestins, except for the last seven days that are hormone free • The pill tricks the hypothalamic pituitary control system and essentially “lulls it to sleep” because the relatively constant blood levels of ovarian hormones makes it appear that the woman is pregnant. • Ovarian follicles do not mature, ovulation ceases, and menstrual flow is much reduced.
Female Contraceptives • IUD (Intrauterine Device)—plastic or metal device inserted into the uterus that prevents implantation of a fertilized egg • Delivers a dose of synthetic progesterone to the endometrium, as well as decreases sperm motility • Diaphragm—a dome-shaped bowl made of thin, flexible rubber that sits over the cervix • AKA: The Female Condom
Female Contraceptives • Norplant—Tiny silicon rods that are implanted just under the skin that release progestin over a 5 year period • Depo-Provera—an injectable synthetic progesterone that lasts for 3 months
Female Contraceptives • Morning After Pill—drugs that act to disrupt ovulation or fertilization. It is not an abortion pill because it has its effect prior to the earliest time of implantation • Tubal ligation—a surgical procedure for sterilization in which a woman's fallopian tubes are clamped and blocked, or severed and sealed, either method of which prevents eggs from reaching the uterus for fertilization. AKA: Getting your “tubes tied”