What Are STDs? Anyone who haswith another person risks contracting a sexually transmitted disease. Sexually transmitted diseases are also called sexually transmitted infections.
What Are STDs? Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)are communicable diseases that can be easily transmitted from one person to another. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)
What Are STDs? Several of the most common STDs are often, so many people don’t seek treatment because theythey are infected. Asymptomatic Individuals show no symptoms, or the symptoms are mild and disappear after the onset of the infection
Common STDs Genital HPV infections, chlamydia, genital herpes, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, and syphilis are the most common STDs. There are approximatelydifferent STDs, six of which are considered the most common.
Chlamydia Chlamydia is ainfection that producessymptoms If left untreated, chlamydia can cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in females and infertility in males.
Chlamydia • Transmission: Semen & vaginal fluids, mother to child • Youth: At greater risk b/c of cervical ectopy (immature cervix) • Symptoms: Discharge, painful urination, usuallyin women & 10-40% of the time in men • Time to onset: • Diagnosis: Genital swab or urine test • Treatment:Antibotics very effective • Complications: PID or Epididymitis
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease • What is it?: Inflammation of the upper female repro tract • What is the cause: Migrationinfection from the vagina. Common & serious complication of some STD’s • Symptoms: • Complications: Ectopic pregnancy, maternal death, sterility • Treatment: Antibiotics
Gonorrhea Gonorrhea is aSTD that usually affects mucous membranes. Left untreated, gonorrhea can causehealth problems, such as infertility and permanent damage to the body’s joints.
Gonorrhea • Transmission: Semen & vaginal fluids, mother to child • Youth: At greater risk b/c of cervical ectopy (immature cervix) • Symptoms: Discharge, painful urination, usually ASYMPTOMATIC in women and men • Time to onset: • Diagnosis: Genital swab or urine test • Treatment:Antibotics very effective • Complications: PID or Epididymitis
Trichomoniasis Trichomoniasis is an infection that can cause symptoms that includeof andfrom the genitals. Females with trichomoniasis are also more likely to contract HIV if they are exposed to it.
Syphilis People infected with syphilis developon the genitals. If left untreated it causes a skin rash, damage to internal organs, brain dementia, and death.
Syphilis • Pregnancy: perinatal infection may cause blindness or infant death • Diagnosis: Blood tests • Treatment: Antibiotics very effective if caught early
Genital HPV Infections Genital HPV infections are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) and can cause genital. Some HPV infectionscervical cancer. A vaccine treatment is now available for protection against HPV.
Human Papiloma Virus (HPV) • Transmission: skin to skin contact; not dependent on visible warts • Symptoms: fleshy “warts” on genital, anus, some strains cause no visible symptoms • Time to onset: • Pregnancy:perinatal infection possible • Diagnosis: observation, PAP smear • Treatment: remove visible warts, virsus stays in the body for life
Human Papiloma Virus (HPV) • About 30 Types of Genital HPV About 30 Types of Genital HPV 4 Types related to Cervical/anal cancer Genital warts
Genital Herpes Genital herpes is anSTD caused by the herpes simplex virus. Herpes simplex 2 typically causes recurring blisters on the genitals or rectum. Herpes simplex 1 usually causes cold sores in or near the mouth.
Genital Herpes (HSV) • Transmission: Skin to skin • Symptoms: itching, blister at infections site; recurrences vary in frequency & severity • Time to onset: • Pregnancy: 5% transmission when lesions present • Diagnosis: Culture, antibody test • Treatment: Symptom relief, antivirals effective, will stay with for life
Pubic Lice, aka “Crabs” • Transmission: sexual contact, clothes, sheets • Symptoms: redness & itching in hairy areas • Diagnosis: seen easily by naked eye • Treatment: lotion, clothes/sheets wash in hot water
Scabies • Transmission: sexual contact, clothes, touching • Symptoms: itchy rash, especially @ nights • Time to onset: • Diagnosis: microscopic examination of skin scrapings • Treatment: creams & lotions
The STD Epidemic The CDC estimates that each year,million people are infected with an STD. Almostare under the age of 24. Accurate health information and responsible behavior will help fight the STD epidemic.
The STD Epidemic embarrassment or fear Many STD cases go undiagnosed and untreated because of notification policies
Prevention Through Abstinence The most successful method to prevent the spread of STDs is abstinence. Some STDs are incurable viral infections, while others can be cured with antibiotics.
Prevention Through Abstinence Some STDs are bacterial infections, such as chlamydiaor, that can be treated and cured with. Antibiotics A class of chemical agents that destroy disease-causing microorganisms while leaving the patient unharmed
Understanding the Risks Because many STDs go, it is not enough for a partner simply to say that he or she is uninfected. Abstinence is the only sure method of preventing STDs.
Avoiding High-Risk Behaviors and STDs To prevent contract STDs, avoid engaging in high-risk behaviors, including: being sexually active with more than one person engaging in sexual activity with high-risk partners
Teens at Higher Risk • Bodies can’t fight off infections really well compared to adults • Females are at higher risk b/c females have large areas of mucus membranes • Females receive a larger volume of body fluid then males during sexual intercourse • Females - cells on the cervix are more susceptible to infection than the cells of the adult cervix
HPV Vaccine This HPV vaccineagainst types of HPV infections. HPV vaccine A vaccine that can prevent cervical cancer, pre-cancerous genital lesions (or sores), and genital warts caused by genital HPV infection
Diagnosing and Treating STDs Only a health care professional can accurately diagnose and treat an STD. When an STD has been diagnosed, a health care professional will prescribe the most effective medication and monitor the patient’s treatment.
Diagnosing and Treating STDs Teens who believe they might be infected with an STD should talk to a health care professional. Many public health clinics provide information and treatment free of charge.
Act Responsibly Actto prevent the spread of STDs. Practice abstinence. Report any known infections.