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The Romantic Age. Values of Romanticism. Rejection of: simplicity, proportion and restraint. Romantics valued: Feeling, Intuition, Passion, Imagination, Spontaneity. Revolutions and Rights. 1776-- American Revolution 1789-- French Revolution

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values of romanticism
Values of Romanticism
  • Rejection of: simplicity, proportion and restraint.
  • Romantics valued:

Feeling, Intuition, Passion, Imagination, Spontaneity

revolutions and rights
Revolutions and Rights
  • 1776-- American Revolution
  • 1789-- French Revolution
  • Democracy, republicanism, equality before the law
  • Congresses, presidencies, constitutions--results of those conflicts
the revolution in america
The Revolution in America
  • American colonists’ resentment of British control
  • Declaration of Independence, 1776
  • Principles of Enlightenment--John Locke’s Treatise on Civil Government
  • Thomas Jefferson: equality, civil rights and popular sovereignty from philosophes
  • Federalist Papers: authority of state; rights of individual--did not address slavery
the revolution in france
The Revolution in France
  • Louis XVI
  • July 14: Bastille prison attacked
  • Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen-- from Rousseau’s thoughts
  • Liberte, Egalite, Fraternite
  • 1793, beheading of monarchs
  • Reign of Terror began
the napoleonic era
The Napoleonic Era
  • 1799--disillusioned citizens
  • New hero: Napoleon Bonaparte
  • Dreams of imperial glory
  • Crowned himself emperor in 1804
  • Campaign to conquer Europe
  • Defeated in 1814 at Waterloo
  • Imprisoned for the rest of his life in St. Helena
napoleon and the arts
Napoleon and the Arts
  • Imitated Roman emperors--Paris imperial capital like Rome
  • Power advertised by arts and buildings
  • Louvre--museum to pieces stolen from conquered countries
  • Triumphal arches and columns
  • La Madeleine--Greek temple
slide8
Jacques-Louis David--Painter to the Empire
  • Napoleon Crossing the Alps
  • Benoist’s Portrait of a Black Woman
  • Counterpoint to Canova’s sculpture of Napoleon’s sister as Venus
colonial revolutionaries
Colonial Revolutionaries
  • 1793--Toussaint L’Ouverture led Haiti’s revolt against the French--Napoleon imprisoned him.
  • Simon Bolivar--wanted to create a United States of South America. Obtained freedom for Venezuela, Colombia and Peru.
the romantic hero
The Romantic Hero
  • Romantics preferred feeling and imagination to intellect and reason. Attracted to the picturesque in nature and the past; prized creativity and cast off neoclassical restraint and laws.
  • 1775-1850
beethoven
Beethoven
  • Suffering romantic genius
  • Deafness at 25
  • Pianist in Vienna, able to sell his compositions
  • Symphony No. 3 Eroica was the bridge between Classical style and romantic style
slide12
Added piccolo and trombone to the symphonic orchestra
  • Symphony Number 5 in C Minor
  • Confrontation with fate: “Fate knocking at the door”
  • Motif: Term for short musical idea
musical virtuosos
Musical Virtuosos
  • Paganini: violin
  • Chopin: piano
  • Schumann: Songs and symphonies
  • Clara Schumann: Lieder (songs)
  • Brahms: symphonies
goethe and faust
Goethe and Faust
  • Faust: romantic masterpiece drama in two parts
  • Delacroix illustrated a French translation
  • Schubert composed songs
  • Gounod: opera Faust: Ambition to burst all human constraint and indulge unquenched desire for experience
delacroix and the byronic hero
Delacroix and the Byronic Hero
  • French more attracted to sensuality of Lord Byron: Don Juan, life of sexual freedom, political idealism and exotic travel.
  • Intellectual and moral freedom
  • Eugene Delacroix rebelled against the academy
  • Color, drama and exotic themes
death of sardanapalus and liberty leading the people
Death of SardanapalusandLiberty Leading the People
  • Orgy of egoism, violence and sexuality
  • When threatened by rebellion he destroys his possessions and himself
  • Revolution of 1830 overthrew the Bourbon king
  • Unity of the classes
elements of romanticism
Elements of Romanticism
  • Heroic individualism: Faust and Lord Byron
  • Protest against political and social injustice
  • Attraction for nature and medieval times
  • Fascination with evil and the exotic
  • Sensibility that responded to historical circumstances
romantic social protest william blake
Romantic Social Protest: William Blake
  • Sympathetic observer of those enslaved by the industrial city
  • Condemned the ills of urban existence
romantic feminism
Romantic Feminism
  • Mary Wollstonecraft: A Vindication of the Rights of Women : Compared women to soldiers
  • Revolutions did not liberate women. Napoleon’s legal code denied women the right to hold property
  • Western nations did not allow women to vote
goya and spain
Goya and Spain
  • Goya’s paintings depicted the senseless brutality of war
  • Executions of the Third of May 1808
  • Christ-like martyr in white
  • Lamp: enlightenment (irony)
  • The Sleep of Reason Brings Forth Monsters, Romantic fascination with evil
the romantics and nature
The Romantics and Nature
  • Romantic landscapes
  • Constable: The Hay Wain rustic landscapes
  • Turner: The Slave Ship (Slavers Throwing Overboard the Dead and Dying—Typhoon Coming On)
  • Effects of fog and smoke
romantic exoticism
Romantic Exoticism
  • Middle classes become strong
  • Drawn to exotic and grotesque
  • Colonies overseas: Africa and Asia
  • Fascination with Arabic customs and dress
  • Ingres: Disciple of David--The TurkishBath
  • Classical figures
berlioz s symphonie fantastique
Berlioz’s Symphonie Fantastique
  • Innovated with program music (composition that tells a story or describes a place)
  • Story of Irish actress who rejected him
  • Fifth movement: musician is dead and his beloved joins the celebration in a witches’ dance
  • The macabre
the romantic novel
The Romantic Novel
  • Fascination with evil and the demonic: The Gothic novel
  • Edgar Allan Poe
  • Charlotte and Emily Bronte
  • Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein
  • Hero who suffers a conflict between his God-like ambitions and moral blindness