Sea Power and Maritime Affairs Lesson 22: Global Responsibilities After the Cold War, 1991-2001
Learning Objectives • Comprehend the national strategic implications of the Post Cold War and its effects on policy and the Navy. • Comprehend the role of the Navy in regional conflicts, including Post-Gulf War Iraq, Yugoslavia, Somalia, and Afghanistan. • Comprehend the changes in Naval policy and technology, as well as historical 1990s milestones.
Strategic Implications Post-Cold War • July 31, 1991, START I. • September 27,1991, President Bush announced Soviets no longer pose creditable threat to the U.S. • SAC bombers off 24-hour alert. • Removed all tactical nukes from Navy surface, sub and aircraft.
Soviet CollapseDecember 8, 1991 • Boris Yelstin elected President after Soviet collapse. He was re-elected in 1996 and resigned in December of 1999, due to health. • Successor of states: Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, and Belarus. Ukraine and Kazakhstan became the third and fourth largest nuclear states. • Russia joined U.S. in NPT • U.S. and Russia found themselves “comrades in arms” to prevent uncontrolled nuclear weapons in former Soviet Union, North Korea, Pakistan, and India.
Boris Yeltsin, President of the Russian Republic, George and Barbara Bush, and the Bush dogs on the White House lawn. Bush supported Yeltsin's efforts to transform Russia into a post-communist regime
North Korea • Early 1993, N. Korea violated signed treaty and prevented inspections of Atomic Energy Agency inspections of nuclear waste sites. • President Kim Il-Sung accused U.S. and S. Korea of “spying” for the purpose of a planned, organized, joint nuclear strike on the North. • President Sung’s son, Kim Jong-Il, succeeds father to presidency eighteen months later and agrees with President William Clinton to allow inspections for light-water reactors that do not produce plutonium. • 31 August 1998, N. Korea launched a ballistic missile over Japan. N. Korea demanded lift of economic sanctions.
India/Pakistan • May 1998, India announced detonation of five nuclear weapons in Thar Desert near Pakistan border. • 1968, India refused to sign NPT • 1974, became “nuclear power” • U.S. and U.N. plead to Pakistan to not respond to test. Pakistan conducts 6 tests within a month. • On 6 June 1998, both countries sign Nonproliferation Treaty of 1968 and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT).
"[Not achieving a nuclear test ban] would have to be classed as the greatest disappointment of any administration, of any decade, of any time and of any party." President Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1961.
Missile Defense Systems • Decades of arms control negotiations, dissolution of the Soviet Union, and in the afterglow of the Cold War, nuclear war seems less plausible to Americans. • Threat of massive retaliation simply would not deter terrorists, so missile defense becomes topic of the end of the 1990s. • December 1999, President Yeltsin resigns. • January 2001, President George Bush, Jr., took Oath of Office. • President Bush decoupled American and Russian strategic interests for the first time since Nixon.
Post-Gulf War IRAQ 1990s includes a series of Operations where the Navy, especially the carrier battle group (CVBG) is a primary instrument.
1992 • UNSCR 687 stipulated Iraq must provide full disclosure of all aspects of its nuclear, chemical, biological, and long-range missile weapons programs • August 26- “No Fly Zone” (NFZ) OPERATION SOUTHERN WATCH • December 27- F-16D destroys MiG-25 intruding NFZ.
1993 • January 13. Thirty-five aircraft from the Kitty Hawk lead strike against 32 Iraqi SAM sites that have continues to target planes patrolling the NFZ. • January 17. Three destroyers launch a total of 45 Tomahawk cruise missiles into Zaafaraniyah Nuclear Fabrication Facility; 41 hit their targets. • Aegis cruiser launches 23 missiles at Iraqi Intelligence Service Headquarters in Baghdad.
1995 • August 17. OPERATION VIGILANT SENTINEL. U.S. sends two CVBGs in response to Iraqi threat on Kuwait and Jordan’s boarders. • September. Iraq finally declared the existence of two projects to disseminate biological agents from Mirage F-1 and MiG-21 aircraft, yet there is no evidence that the prototype weapons and aircraft were ever destroyed.
1996 • September 3. OPERATION DESERT STRIKE. Iraqi troops threaten Kurds under protection of Operation Provide Comfort. • September 4. Clinton extends NFZ to the 33rd parallel.
1997 • OPERATION NORTHERN WATCH. Enforcement of NFZ over Northern Iraq.
1998 • July. Iraq seized from the hands of UNSCOM inspectors an Iraqi Air Force document indicating that Iraq misrepresented the expenditure of over 6,000 bombs that may have contained over 700 tons of a chemical agent. • November 14. Saddam suspends all contact with U.N. inspection teams. • December. Saddam stopped all cooperation with the U.N., refusing to let any weapons inspectors into the country. • December 16. OPERATION DESERT FOX.
1999 • Nine years after the Gulf War, sanctions remained in place because of Iraq’s behavior. • No Iraqi biological weapon production records have been given to the UN, besides one referring to a single year.
2001 • February 16. Air strike on Iraq. • August 10. More than 25 strikes this year in response to anti-aircraft fire and missile launches.
2002 • January 21 and February 28. U.S. and British planes strike anti-air sites in response to fire. • January 29. President Bush announces, “Iran, Iraq, and North Korea” constitute an “axis of evil.” • As of January 2002, multiple combat Air Patrols are still present over Iraq with occasional strikes in response to NFZ violations.
1991 • June 27. Fighting starts in Slovenia, spreading to Croatia. • November 8. Europe places economic blockade on Yugoslavia. 1992 • January. U.N. protection force sent. • May 22. U.N. recognizes Croatia, Slovenia, and Bosnia as independent states.
1992, Cont…. • March 30. U.N. called for humanitarian aid, economic embargos, and ban on air traffic. • July 1. Washington called for relief flights that would be multinational and be supported until OPERATION DENY FLIGHT in April 1993. • September 22. Yugoslavia expelled from U.N. in response to Milosevic’s atrocities.
1993 • April 12. OPERATION DENY FLIGHT. NFZ over Bosnia. • June 15. OPERATION SHARP GUARD. Adriatic blockade. 1995 • August 30- September 21. OPERATION DELIBERATE FORCE. NATO bombing offensive. • December 14. Dayton Accords. Ended war in Bosnia.
1998 • June 14. OPERATION DETERMINED FALCON. 1999 • March 24- June 10. NATO war with Yugoslavia. OPERATION DENY FORCE.
1992 • August 18- December 9. OPERATION PROVIDE RELIEF. • December 9. OPERATION RESTORE HOPE. 1993 • June 5. Mogadishu, 24 members of a detachment of Pakistani peacekeepers are killed. • October 3. 400 U.S. Army troops ambushed. 18 Americans killed; 77 wounded. • October 7. Clinton orders troops to Somalia.
1992 • March 24. U.S. withdraws. 1995 • March 3. OPERATION UNITED SHIELD. U.N. evacuates Somalia, covered by multinational force, including U.S. ships and Marines.
All commitments in the Joint world are not alone to one service. Although the Navy had a smaller part in Somalia, it still affects commitments to Yugoslavia and Iraq at this time.
America’s“War on Terrorism” • September 11, 2001. World Trade Center attacked. President Bush declares “War on Terrorism” the very next day. • Ultimatum to Taliban in Afghanistan to close al-Quaeda training camps and surrender Bin Laden. • The state of the Navy: 12 CVBG, 12 ARG, 108 Surface Combatants, 55 SSBN, 3 Marine divisions, 3 Marine Air Wings. 2 carriers present in Persian Gulf.
U.S. Strike Assets Used • 15 U.S. long-range bombers, B-1, B-52 • 25 Carrier Attack A/C, F-14s, F/A-18s • Tomahawks, Aegis cruisers, Aegis destroyers, and Los Angeles - class submarines. • Intent of campaign is for the Northern Alliance to be able to take offensive- 15,000 troops. Taliban • Ground: 40,000 fighters • No Taliban fighter aircraft successfully launched
An F/A-18C Hornet is prepared for launch from the aircraft carrier USS Carl Vinson.
Crew men of the USS Enterprise (CVN 65) line up to receive an Advanced Chemical Protective Garments issued for protection against chemical, biological, or radiological attack on Oct. 7, 2001, during Operation Enduring Freedom.
The Continued Campaign… • By November 13, the Northern Alliance has taken the offensive • Northern Alliances’ multiple tribes announce intention to form inclusive government. • November 25. Marines/Special Forces ashore. • December 4-16. Tora Bora. Victory in 11 days. • December 6. New Afghan Government. • By December 17, two million lbs of bombs expended in multiple air strikes against Taliban.
Continued Campaign • December 22. Hamid Karzai interim Prime Minster of Afghanistan. • As of January 2002, Afghanistan has an interim government and multi-national ground force, naval forces, and combat air patrols all on station. • February 2002, LT Russell Fusco, star of film “Pearl Harbor,” attends CAS symposium in Kuwait to discuss course of war.
“Other” 1990s Naval Events • September 1991. Tailhook • April 1993. SECDEF announces that women will fly combat aircraft missions and serve on combat vessels. • July 1993. “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell” – Clinton policy for homosexuals in the military. • February 1994. LT Shannon Workman becomes first female carrier qualified fighter pilot. • February 1998. A Marine Corps EA-6B, based in Aviano, Italy, flies below low level training route altitude and severs gondola cables killing civilians. • October 1994. LT Kara Hultgreen, first woman carrier qualified in the F-14 Tomcat, is killed during landing operations.
Gondola wreckage from EA-6B Lt. Kara Spears 'Revlon' Hultgreen (1965-1994)
7. March 1995. LCDR Wendy Lawrence, daughter of Admiral Lawrence (Vietnam POW), becomes first female naval aviator in space on board STS 60, The Endeavor. 8. May 1996. Death of Admiral Michael Boorda. Chief of Naval Operations shoots himself in response to journalistic investigations of his entitlement to wear combat “V” for service in waters off Vietnam. 9. October 2000. Attack on the USS Cole. 10. February 2001. Greenville incident. 11. April 2001. EP-3 incident.
CDR Wendy Lawrence, U.S. Navy Admiral Jeremy M. Boorda, U.S. Navy USS Cole damage
EP-3 crewmembers stand at ease during the April 12 ceremony welcoming them to Hawaii following their release from China
PolicyNew Technology • September 1992. “…From the Sea.” The Navy adopts new mission as consequence to the end of the Cold War. • September 1993. “Bottom Up Review” 346-ship navy with 11 carrier battle groups. Goal: Ability to fight 2 major regional conflicts and one low intensity conflict at the same time. • May 1997. As result of first “Quadrennial Defense Reviews,” force levels to be able to deal with two simultaneous regional conflicts call for 12 carriers groups and 12 amphibious ready groups.
June 1997. Navy signs preliminary agreement for construction of the DD-21 Zumwalt class. • May 1999. Osprey, MV-22, first of four production models approved. • September 1999. New attack sub (NSSN) “Virginia” class to be built. • April 2000. MV-22 crashes in Arizona; 19 lost. • December 2000. MV-22 crashes in Jacksonville, killing all four crewmen. • December 2000. JSF X-35C, carrier version, makes first flight. • March 2000. Mrs. Reagan christens USS Ronald Reagan, CVN 76.
MV-22 OSPREY X-35 JSF
Significance of the 1990s for the Navy of the Future • Comprehend the transitional nature of the naval strategy and policy in the 1990s when judges against the post “9-11” events and the War on Terrorism. • Understand that many of the guiding assumptions of the 1990s were made obsolete by 9-11 and the War on Terrorism. • Assess what aspects of the naval policy and strategy of the 1990s remain valid for the early 2000s.