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Matter – Properties and Changes. Chap. 3. Can you think of anything that is pure?. Substance. (Pure) Substance . Matter that has a constant, unchanging composition. Substance Properties of matter. Substance Properties of matter. Extensive vs. Intensive. Extensive Property.

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slide4

(Pure) Substance

Matter that has a constant, unchanging composition

slide5

Substance

  • Properties of matter
slide6

Substance

  • Properties of matter
  • Extensive vs. Intensive
slide7

Extensive Property

Intensive Property

slide8

Extensive Property

Intensive Property

Depends on amount of substance

slide9

Extensive Property

Intensive Property

Depends on amount of substance

Ex.

mass, length, volume,

slide10

Extensive Property

Intensive Property

Depends on amount of substance

Independent of the amount of substance

Ex.

mass, length, volume,

slide11

Extensive Property

Intensive Property

Depends on amount of substance

Independent of the amount of substance

Ex.

mass, length, volume,

Ex.

density, boiling point, color

slide12

Substance

  • Properties of Matter
  • Extensive vs. Intensive
  • Physical vs. Chemical
slide13

Physical Property

Chemical Property

slide14

Physical Property

Chemical Property

Property that can be observed without altering composition

slide15

Physical Property

Chemical Property

Property that can be observed without altering composition

Ex.

color, state, BP, density

slide16

Physical Property

Chemical Property

Property that can be observed without altering composition

Property that when measured alters a substance

Ex.

color, state, BP, density

slide17

Physical Property

Chemical Property

Property that can be observed without altering composition

Property that when measured alters a substance

Ex.

color, state, BP, density

Ex.

Oxidizing ability, reactivity

slide18

Substance

  • Properties of Matter
  • Extensive vs. Intensive
  • Physical vs. Chemical
  • State
slide20

Three States of Matter

  • Solid
  • Liquid
  • Gas
slide21

Substance

  • Properties of Matter
  • Changes in Matter
slide22

Substance

  • Properties of Matter
  • Changes in Matter
  • Physical vs. Chemical
slide23

Physical Change

Chemical Change

Change in macro-scopic structure without altering composition

slide24

Physical Change

Chemical Change

Change in macro-scopic structure without altering composition

Ex.

Crush, cut, grind, phase change

slide25

Physical Change

Chemical Change

Change in macro-scopic structure without altering composition

Change that alters composition of substance

Ex.

Crush, cut, grind, phase change

slide26

Physical Change

Chemical Change

Change in macro-scopic structure without altering composition

Change that alters composition of substance

Ex.

Crush, cut, grind, phase change

Ex.

Corrode, explode, oxidize, burn

slide27

Substance

  • Properties of Matter
  • Changes in Matter
  • Physical vs. Chemical
  • Conservation of Mass
slide28

Conservation of Mass

Massreactants = Massproducts

slide29

Self Check – Ex. 1

A 22.8-g sample of water is decomposed. It produces 2.6-g of hydrogen. What mass of oxygen is formed?

slide30

Self Check – Ex. 1

A 22.8-g sample of water is decomposed. It produces 2.6-g of hydrogen. What mass of oxygen is formed?

Moxygen = 20.6 g

slide31

Mixtures

  • Homogenous vs. Heterogeneous
slide32

Mixture

Combination of two or more pure substances

slide33

Mixtures

  • Homogenous vs. Heterogeneous
slide34

Homogeneous Mixture

Heterogeneous Mixture

has the same composition throughout.

slide35

Homogeneous Mixture

Heterogeneous Mixture

has the same composition throughout.

Ex.

gatorade, radiator fluid, saltwater

slide36

Homogeneous Mixture

Heterogeneous Mixture

has the same composition throughout.

mixture with visibly different parts.

Ex.

gatorade, radiator fluid, saltwater

slide37

Homogeneous Mixture

Heterogeneous Mixture

has the same composition throughout.

mixture with visibly different parts.

Ex.

gatorade, radiator fluid, saltwater

Ex.

salad, root beer float, sandy water

slide39

some other solutions

  • gas in gas – air
  • gas in liquid – carbonated drink
  • liquid in gas – water droplets in air
  • solid in solid – alloy
slide40

Mixtures

  • Separating
slide41

Mixtures

  • Separating
  • filtration
slide42

Mixtures

  • Separating
  • filtration
  • distillation
slide43

Mixtures

  • Separating
  • filtration
  • distillation
  • crystallization
slide44

Mixtures

  • Separating
  • filtration
  • distillation
  • crystallization
  • chromatography
slide45

Self Check – Ex. 2

A mixture of salt, sand and water is created. How can you recover the sand and salt?

slide46

Self Check – Ex. 3

A mixture of red dye is placed in water. How can this mixture be separated?

slide48

Element

Pure substance that can’t be broken down by physical or chemical means

slide49

elements

  • organized on periodic table
  • about 100 elements (90 occur naturally)
  • they aren’t equally abundant
  • abbreviated with 1 or 2 letter symbols
slide50

Elements & Compounds

  • Element
  • Compound
slide51

Compound

Combination of two or more elements

slide52

compounds

  • over 10 million and increasing
  • can be decomposed into elements
  • chemical formulas show which elements compose compounds
slide53

Laws of the Compounds

  • Law of Constant Composition
slide54

Law of Constant Composition

Every sample of a given compound contains the same mass ratio of elements.

slide55

Self Check – Ex. 4

ID Carbon Oxygen C:O ratio

A 1.56 g 2.07 g

B 2.25 g 2.99 g

Are compounds A and B the same substance?

slide56

Self Check – Ex. 4

ID Carbon Oxygen C:O ratio

A 1.56 g 2.07 g 1.33

B 2.25 g 2.99 g 1.33

Are compound A and B the same substance?

Yes – they have the same C:O ratio.

slide57

Laws of the Compounds

  • Law of Constant Composition
  • Law of Multiple Proportions
slide58

Law of Multiple Proportions

The ratio of mass ratios for the elements in two different compounds will be a whole number

slide59

Self Check – Ex. 5

ID Nitrogen Oxygen N:O ratio

C 15.02 g 8.58 g

D 5.48 g 6.26 g

N2O

Compound C is N2O. Suggest a formula for compound D?

slide60

Self Check – Ex. 5

ID Nitrogen Oxygen N:O ratio

C 15.02 g 8.58 g 1.75

D 5.48 g 6.26 g 0.875

Compound B has half the nitrogen. Could be NO (nitrogen monoxide).