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States of Matter - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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States of Matter. Chap. 13. Gases. State of matter in which particles are separated by large distances. Gases. Gas properties. Gases. Gas properties. Gases have mass. Gases. Gas properties. Gases have mass Gases occupy space. Gases. Gas properties. Gases have mass

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slide2

Gases

State of matter in which particles are separated by large distances.

slide3

Gases

  • Gas properties
slide4

Gases

  • Gas properties
  • Gases have mass
slide5

Gases

  • Gas properties
  • Gases have mass
  • Gases occupy space
slide6

Gases

  • Gas properties
  • Gases have mass
  • Gases occupy space
  • Gases completely fill their containers
slide7

Gases

  • Gas properties
  • Gases have mass
  • Gases occupy space
  • Gases completely fill their containers
  • Gases have low density
slide8

Gases

  • Gas properties
  • Gases can be compressed & expanded
slide9

Gases

  • Gas properties
  • Gases can be compressed & expanded
  • Gases exert pressure
slide10

Gases

  • Gas properties
  • Gases can be compressed & expanded
  • Gases exert pressure
  • Gases diffuse & effuse
slide11

Gases

  • The Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT)

An explanation of why gases behave the way they do.

slide12

Gases

  • The Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT)
  • Gases consist of tiny particles in constant motion
slide13

Gases

  • The Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT)
  • Gases consist of tiny particles in constant motion
  • Gas particles travel in straight line until they collide with other particles or the container
slide14

Gases

  • The Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT)
  • Gas particles are separated by relatively large spaces
slide15

Gases

  • The Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT)
  • Gas particles are separated by relatively large spaces
  • The kinetic energy of gas particles depends on the temperature

KE = ½ mv2

slide16

Gases

  • Diffusion

Spreading out of particles (high to low concentration)

slide17

Gases

  • Diffusion
  • Diffusion depends on how fast particles travel.
slide18

Gases

  • Diffusion
  • Diffusion depends on how fast particles travel.
  • Cold particles travel _____ than warm particles.
slide19

Gases

  • Diffusion
  • Diffusion depends on how fast particles travel.
  • Cold particles travel slower than warm particles.
  • Small particles travel _____ than small particles.
slide20

Gases

  • Diffusion
  • Diffusion depends on how fast particles travel.
  • Cold particles travel slower than warm particles.
  • Small particles travel faster than small particles.
slide21

Gases

  • Diffusion
  • Diffusion depends on how fast particles travel.
  • Graham found that the diffusion rate was inversely proportional to the square root of the molar mass.
slide22

Graham’s Law

RateA

Molar mass B

=

RateB

Molar mass A

slide23

Measuring Gases

  • Gas Pressure
slide24

Measuring Gases

  • Gas Pressure
  • Pressure is force per area

P = F/A

slide25

Measuring Gases

  • Gas Pressure
  • Pressure is force per area
  • The atmosphere exerts pressure
slide26

Measuring Gases

  • Gas Pressure
  • Pressure is force per area
  • The atmosphere exerts pressure
  • Pressure units
equivalent pressure units
Equivalent Pressure units

1.00 atmosphere (atm)

101325 pascals (Pa)

101.325 kilopascals (kPa)

760 __________ (mm Hg)

760 torricelli (torr)

14.7 pounds per square inch (___)

slide28

Measuring Gases

  • Gas Pressure
  • Pressure is force per area
  • The atmosphere exerts pressure
  • Pressure units
  • Converting pressure
slide29

Self Check – Ex. 1

A container of gas has a pressure of 50 atm. What is this pressure in psi?

slide30

Self Check – Ex. 2

What is the pressure in pascals of a gas sample that is 140 kPa?

slide31

Measuring Gases

  • Instruments
slide32

Measuring Gases

  • Instruments
  • Barometer

Measures atmospheric pressure.

slide33

Measuring Gases

  • Instruments
  • Barometer
  • Mercury

Image: Dr. Leon L. Combs

Atmosphere ‘holds up’ a column of mercury

slide34

Measuring Gases

  • Instruments
  • Barometer
  • Mercury
  • Aneroid

Image: Australian BOM

Name means ‘without liquid’

slide35

CO2

22 mm

Hg

  • Measuring Gases
  • Instruments
  • Barometer
  • Manometer

Measures pressure of an enclosed gas

slide36

Measuring Gases

  • Instruments
  • Barometer
  • Manometer
  • Example calculations
slide37

Self Check – Ex. 3

What is the pressure of the CO2 gas pictured below? Atmospheric pressure is 755 mmHg.

CO2

22 mm

Hg

slide38

65 mm

He

Hg

Self Check – Ex. 4

What is the pressure of the helium gas pictured below? Atmospheric pressure is 1.1 atm.