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LEARNING FOR ALL: WHAT DOES IT TAKE ? . Prepared for MASA September 2006 Dr. Vickie L. Markavitch Oakland Schools ISD vickie.markavitch@oakland.k12.mi.us. Research. Effective Schools, Edmonds, 1979 Effective Schools Expanded, Lezotte, 1990 School Level Factors, Sammons, 1999

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learning for all what does it take

LEARNING FOR ALL: WHAT DOES IT TAKE?

Prepared for MASA

September 2006

Dr. Vickie L. Markavitch

Oakland Schools ISD

vickie.markavitch@oakland.k12.mi.us

research
Research
  • Effective Schools, Edmonds, 1979
  • Effective Schools Expanded, Lezotte, 1990
  • School Level Factors, Sammons, 1999
  • Ranking of School Level Factors, Scheerens and Bosker, 1997
  • Ranking of School Level Factors, Marzano, 2000
  • Ranking of School Level Factors, Marzano, 2003
marzano s ranking of school level factors what works in schools
Marzano’s Ranking of School Level Factors: What Works in Schools
  • Guaranteed and Viable Curriculum
    • Opportunity to Learn
    • Time
  • Challenging Goals and Effective Feedback
    • Monitoring
    • Pressure to Achieve
  • Parental and Community Involvement
  • Safe and Orderly Environment
  • Collegiality and Professionalism
    • Leadership
    • Cooperation
what research has told us
1980’s (Effective Schools)

Instructional Leadership

High Expectations

Frequent Monitoring

Safe/Orderly Environment

Home-School Relations

Clear Focused Mission

Opportunity to Learn

Student Time on Task

2003 ( Marzano’s Recap)

Collegiality/professionalism

Challenging Goals

Effective Feedback

Safe/Orderly Environment

Parental/Community involvement

Guaranteed and Viable Curriculum

What Research Has Told Us
focus for today
Focus for Today
  • Guaranteed and Viable Curriculum
    • Clear Focused Mission
      • Intended Curriculum
    • Opportunity to Learn
      • Implemented Curriculum
    • Time on Task
      • Essential Curriculum
  • Challenging Goals and Feedback
    • High Expectations
    • Frequent Monitoring
guaranteed and viable curriculum
Guaranteed and Viable Curriculum
  • Intended curriculum
    • State and district standards
    • Adopted curriculum
  • Implemented curriculum
    • What teachers choose to teach
  • Attained curriculum
    • What students learn
          • “The idea that there exists a coherent plan for teaching content within the local district, or even within the individual school, is a gravely misleading myth.” E.D. Hirsch, 1996
viable curriculum and opportunity to learn
Viable Curriculum and Opportunity to Learn
  • Identify what it is you want students to know, understand and be able to do.
  • Make sure that those things are taught.
  • Check to see that those things are learned.
  • Intervene immediately and effectively when they are not.
  • Recheck to see if that learning has been retained.
opportunity to learn
Opportunity to Learn
  • Opportunity to learn had the strongest relationship with student achievement of all school-level factors. (Marzano, 2000)
  • 65% of the achievement gap is a gap of opportunity (Lezotte) – A big gap is the 20 nations that offer universal preschool while the U.S. does not.
  • If it is not taught it is not likely to be learned.
  • A curriculum is not viable if there is not adequate time for teaching and learning.
slide10
Time
  • McREL’s 200 standards and 3,093 benchmarks = 15,465 hours of instruction.
  • Typical 180 day school year with 5.6 hours of instruction for 13 years (K-12) provides for 13,104 hours of instruction.
  • Studies show use of classroom time for instruction vary from 21% to 69% - at 69% 13,104 hours become 9,042 hours.
international gaps
International Gaps
  • Number of math topics taught in fourth grade
    • US – 78 in 180 days
    • Japan – 47 in 253 days
    • Germany – 23 in 230 days

Question: Given Michigan’s flexibility on school calendar how many still have 180 days in the school year? If not, how quickly was that given away??

prisoners of time
Prisoners of Time
  • No matter how the assumptions underlying the figure are modified, the result is always the same – students abroad are required to work on demanding subject matter at least twice as long as U.S. students.

(National Education Commission on Time and

Learning, 1994)

time and viability of curriculum
Time and Viabilityof Curriculum
  • Time to teach it
  • Time to learn it
    • School days
    • School hours
    • Protected time
  • Real time intervention
    • Non-negotiable time during the structured day
    • As soon as …. Not in summer school
deciding what to teach
Deciding What to Teach
  • “Given the limited time you have with your students, teaching has become more and more an issue of deciding what you won’t teach than what you will teach. You cannot do it all. You must choose the essential.”
        • Heidi Hayes Jacobs, 1997
a kindergarten 2nd grade schedule
A Kindergarten - 2nd Grade Schedule
  • 9:00 –12:00 Literacy/Language Arts
  • 12:00 – 1:00 Lunch
  • 1:00 – 2:00 Specials
  • 2:00 – 3:30 Math

* Social Studies and Science are addressed through non-fiction reading and writing.

power standards
Power Standards
  • Learning that leverages other learning in multiple academic areas.
  • Learning that prepares a student for the next level of learning.
  • Learning that endures – gives students skills or knowledge that remains with them long after the test.
      • Doug Reeves, The Leader’s Guide to Standards, 2002
marzano s recommendations
Marzano’s Recommendations
  • Identify and communicate the content considered essential for all students.
  • Ensure that the essential content can be addressed in the amount of time available for instruction.
  • Sequence and organize the essential content in such a way that students have ample opportunity to learn it.
  • Ensure that teachers teach the essential content.
  • Protect the instructional time that is available.
put it on the calendar
Put it on the Calendar
  • The essential curriculum of power standards must be intentionally taught.
  • They must be calendared across the year.
  • That calendar must be published
    • In every classroom in the school building
    • To students
    • To parents
    • On school website
attained curriculum assuring student learning
Attained Curriculum – Assuring Student Learning
  • Start with High Expectations
    • “High expectations of students has been one of the most consistent findings in the literature…Virtually every review of the topic mentions the importance of this factor whether British…Dutch…or American.” (Reynold and Teddlie, 2000)
  • High Expectations (Pressure to Learn) ranks second for school level factors impacting student achievement. (Marzano, 2003)
past industrial society

Skilled and

Unskilled

Laborers

Extra

People

Leaders

Bell Curve

Past Industrial Society

Lawrence W. Lezotte, Ph.D., Effective Schools Products, Ltd.

future information society

Future Information Society

J-Curve

Lawrence W. Lezotte, Ph.D., Effective Schools Products, Ltd.

how does the j curve work

How does the J-Curve work?

100%

%

Demon-strating Skill

Time Units

Lawrence W. Lezotte, Ph.D., Effective Schools Products, Ltd.

learning as the constant
Learning as the Constant
  • Today in most schools learning is the variable and time is the constant.
  • Today in many schools learning is the variable and method is the constant.
  • Must move to learning as the constant with time and method as the variables.

> Dr.Larry Lezotte, 1990

learning 24 7 classroom observation project 2004
Learning 24/7 Classroom Observation Project, 2004
  • Clear Learning Objectives – 4%
  • Evidence of teaching to mastery – 0
  • Evidence of higher order thinking – 3%
  • Academic Dialogue or Discussion - .5%
  • Students required to speak in complete sentences – 0
learning 24 7 classroom observation project 200429
Learning 24/7 Classroom Observation Project, 2004
  • Lecture – 32%
  • Worksheets – 52%
  • Fewer than ½ of students engaged – 82%
  • Evidence of student writing – 0

Source: Learning 24/7 Classroom Observation Project, 2004, Direct Observation of 1,500 K-12 Classrooms

slide30

Some people change when they see the light, others when they feel the heat.

~ Caroline Schoeder

seeing the light
Seeing the Light

Learning as the constant with time and method as the variables…

random acts of improvement

G

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v

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m

e

n

t

S

y

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e

m

P

e

r

f

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Random Acts Of Improvement

= Programs

aligned acts of improvement
Aligned Acts Of Improvement

In an aligned

system...

… improvement

efforts are integrated

and results-oriented

slide34

TQM

EFFECTIVE SCHOOLS

Integrated System

for

Improving Student Performance

F

O

C

U

S

FOCUS on Student Achievement

PATRICIA DAVENPORT

slide35

100%

90%

80%

70%

60%

50%

40%

Reading Test Scores - Brazosport ISD

98%

97%

94%

White

94%

94%

82%

Hispanic

All Students

African

American

70%

64%

60%

Economically

Disadvantaged

50%

00–01

91–92

92–93

93–94

94–95

95–96

96–97

97–98

98–99

99–00

slide36

98%

100%

98%

98%

98%

96%

90%

80%

70%

60%

50%

40%

91–92

92–93

93–94

94–95

95–96

96–97

97–98

98–99

99–00

Math Test Scores- Brazosport ISD

White

79%

All Students

65%

Hispanics

58%

Afr. Amer.

54%

Eco. Dsdv’d

50%

00–01

woodlawn middle school fulton county ga crct test score results 8 th grade
Woodlawn Middle School, Fulton County, GA CRCT Test Score Results, 8th Grade

Percent of students meeting or exceeding expectations

mount clemens community schools meap results 2005

Mount Clemens Community Schools MEAP Results 2005

264% Increase over 3 years

131% Increase over 3 years

Grade 5 Social Studies

mount clemens community schools meap results 200542

Mount Clemens Community Schools MEAP Results 2005

19% Increase over 3 years

33% Increase over 3 years

Grade 5 Science

mount clemens community schools meap results 200543

Mount Clemens Community Schools MEAP Results 2005

90% Increase

117% Increase

120% Increase

Mount Clemens Middle School, Grade 7

mount clemens community schools meap results 200544

Mount Clemens Community Schools MEAP Results 2005

These subjects all show at least

11% increase in one year

Mount Clemens High School, Grade 11

90 90 90 schools
90/90/90 Schools
  • 90% or more free/reduced lunch
  • 90% or more minority enrollment
  • 90% or more of the students meet or exceed proficiency on independent state tests
  • Dispelling the Myth – Revisited
  • www.edtrust.org
how many examples does one need
How Many Examples Does One Need
  • To hold high expectations in our hearts?
  • To know that if it can happen ‘there’ it can happen ‘here’?
  • To be confident we can assure student learning of the essential curriculum?
frequent monitoring and feedback on student learning
Frequent Monitoring and Feedback on Student Learning
  • Identify what it is you want students to know, understand and be able to do.
  • Make sure those things are taught.
  • Check to see if they have been learned.
  • Intervene immediately if they haven’t.
  • Recheck to see if learning is retained.
data helps us work toward our goals
Data Helps Us Work toward Our Goals
  • Measuring student progress
  • Making sure students do not fall through the cracks
  • Measuring program effectiveness
  • Guiding curriculum development
slide49
Maintaining educational focus
  • Allocating resources wisely
  • Promoting accountability
  • Reporting to stakeholders
  • Showing trends
data does not help if
Data Does Not Help If
  • The data is not valid and reliable
  • Appropriate questions are not asked after reviewing the data
  • Data analysis is not used for making wise decisions
in learning centered classrooms it is all about percent proficient
In Learning Centered Classrooms it is all about Percent Proficient
  • Commitment to formative assessments – not just summative – at least quarterly.
  • Commitment to multiple measures over time - curriculum imbedded tests, common district assessments, and benchmarking to external measures.
  • Commitment to Standards, not ‘norms’ as basis for evaluation and improvement.
student proficiency of essential curriculum
Student Proficiency of Essential Curriculum
  • Penn-Harris-Madison Focused Instruction
    • Third grade essential reading skills
    • Third grade essential math skills

(See Hand-out)

teaching to the test or assessing what is learned
Teaching to the Test or Assessing What is Learned
  • Review the Essential Curriculum
      • What would you NOT want students to know, understand, or be able to do?
      • Take those things out of the curriculum.
      • Now you have a curriculum of what it is you DO want students to know, understand and do.
  • How do we know if students learned it?
      • Testing what has been taught, not teaching to the test.
slide63
“Teaching one thing and testing another tends to discriminate against the socio-economically poor and disadvantaged students, since they are the most dependent on the school as the source for their academic learning.”
          • Dr. Larry Lezotte
using data to drive decisions
Using Data to Drive Decisions
  • Assess for instruction - @ discrete standard
  • Share the data with all staff – real time.
  • Schedule time for frequent teacher collaboration to analyze results.
  • Give results to students – test talks/data binders.
  • Identify students in need of assistance.
  • Share best practices identified by results.
  • Share student results with parents – standards based reporting vs. grade reports.
assure student attainment of the intended curriculum
Assure Student Attainment of the Intended Curriculum
  • Identify what it is you want students to know, understand and be able to do.
  • Make sure those things are taught.
  • Check to see if they have been learned.
  • Intervene immediately if they haven’t.
  • Recheck to see if learning is retained.
re teaching mastery learning
Re-teaching > Mastery Learning
  • Opportunity to Learn includes opportunity to do it again – at least for the essentials.
  • Re-teach as soon as possible.
  • Re-teaching loops should be systemic part of the regular day – part of “the way we do business here” and not left as a burden to each individual teacher.
  • Teaching and re-teaching is based on principles of learning – not drill sheets.
slide67

The information on the following two screens was taken from:Classroom Instruction That WorksBy Robert J. Marzano, Debra J. Pickering, Jane E. Pollock, ASCD (2001)

average effect size using higher level questions
Average Effect Size Using Higher-Level Questions

Standard Deviations

Cumulative Percentages

ES = .73

Control Group

Experimental Group

2% 14% 34% 34% 14% 2%

–3sd –2sd –1sd 0sd 1sd 2sd 3sd

2 16 50 84 98 99.9

hope or doubt
Hope or Doubt

Mortimer Adler was being interviewed by

William Buckley and Buckley asked, “Do you

know for a fact that all kids can learn?” In

response, Mortimer Adler said, “No, I do not

know that for a fact, but you don’t know that

they can’t and I’d rather live with my hope

than your doubt.”

A story from

Dr. Larry Lezotte

learning for all what does it take71
Learning for All – What Does It Take?

“We can, whenever and wherever we

choose, successfully teach all children

whose schooling is of interest to us. We

already know more than we need to do that.

Whether or not we do it must finally depend

on how we feel about the fact that we

haven’t so far.”

Ronald Edmonds

1935 - 1983