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Biotechnology. What Is Biotechnology?. Using scientific methods with organisms to produce new products or new forms of organisms

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what is biotechnology
What Is Biotechnology?
  • Using scientific methods with organisms to produce new products or new forms of organisms
  • Any technique that uses living organisms or substances from those organisms to make or modify a product, to improve plants or animals, or to develop microorganisms for specific uses
what is biotechnology3
What Is Biotechnology?
  • GMO- genetically modified organisms.
  • GEO- genetically enhanced organisms.
  • With both, the natural genetic material of the organism has been altered.
  • Roots in bread making, wine brewing, cheese and yogurt fermentation, and classical plant and animal breeding
what is biotechnology4
What Is Biotechnology?
  • Manipulation of genes is called genetic engineering or recombinant DNA technology
  • Genetic engineering involves taking one or more genes from a location in one organism and either
    • Transferring them to another organism
    • Putting them back into the original organism in different combinations
what is the career outlook in biotechnology
What is the career outlook in biotechnology?
  • Biotech in 1998
    • 1,300 companies in the US
    • 2/3 have less than 135 employees
    • 140,000 jobs
  • Jobs will continue to increase exponentially
  • Jobs are available to high school graduates through PhD’s
what subjects are involved with biotechnology
What Subjects Are Involved With Biotechnology?
  • Multidisciplinary- involving a number of disciplines that are coordinated for a desired outcome
  • Science
    • Life sciences
    • Physical sciences
    • Social sciences
what subjects are involved with biotechnology7
What Subjects Are Involved With Biotechnology?
  • Mathematics
  • Applied sciences
    • Computer applications
    • Engineering
    • Agriculture
what are the stages of biotechnology development
What Are the Stages of Biotechnology Development
  • Ancient biotechnology- early history as related to food and shelter; Includes domestication
  • Classical biotechnology- built on ancient biotechnology; Fermentation promoted food production, and medicine
  • Modern biotechnology- manipulates genetic information in organism; Genetic engineering
what are the areas of biotechnology
What Are the Areas of Biotechnology?
  • Organismic biotechnology- uses intact organisms; Does not alter genetic material
  • Molecular biotechnology- alters genetic makeup to achieve specific goals
    • Transgenic organism- an organism with artificially altered genetic material
what are the benefits of biotechnology
What Are the Benefits of Biotechnology?
  • Medicine
    • Human
    • Veterinary
    • Biopharming
  • Environment
  • Agriculture
  • Food products
  • Industry and manufacturing
what did these individuals contribute to biotechnology
What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology?
  • Anton van Leeuwenhoek
  • Discovered cells
    • Bacteria
    • Protists
    • Red blood
what did these individuals contribute to biotechnology12
What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology?
  • Gregor Johan Mendel
  • Discovered genetics
what did these individuals contribute to biotechnology14
What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology?
  • Thomas Hunt Morgan
  • Discovered how genes are transmitted through chromosomes
what did these individuals contribute to biotechnology15
What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology?
  • Ernst Ruska
  • Invented the electron microscope
what did these individuals contribute to biotechnology16
What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology?
  • Sir Alexander Fleming
  • Discovered penicillin
what did these individuals contribute to biotechnology17
What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology?
  • Rosalind Elsie Franklin
  • Research led to the discovery of the double helix structure of DNA
what did these individuals contribute to biotechnology18
What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology?
  • James Watson and Francis Crick
  • Discovered DNA
what did these individuals contribute to biotechnology19
What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology?
  • Mary-Claire King
  • Mapped human genes for research of cancer treatments
what did these individuals contribute to biotechnology20
What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology?
  • Ian Wilmut
  • Created the first true clone, the Dorset ewe Dolly
what is molecular biology
What Is Molecular Biology?
  • Molecular biology- study of molecules in cells
  • Metabolism- processes by which organisms use nutrients
  • Anabolism- building tissues from smaller materials
  • Catabolism- breaking down materials into smaller components
what is a cell
What Is a Cell?
  • Cell- a discrete unit of life
  • Unicellular organism- organism of one cell
  • Multicellular organism- organism of many cells
  • Prokaryote- cells that lack specific nucleus
  • Eukaryote- cells with well-defined nucleus
what is a cell23
What Is a Cell?
  • Cells are building blocks:
    • Tissue- collection of cells with specific functions
    • Organs- collections of tissues with specific functions
    • Organ systems- collections of organs with specific functions
what are the structures in molecular genetics
What Are the Structures in Molecular Genetics?
  • Molecular genetics- study of genes and how they are expressed
  • Chromosome- part of cell nucleus that contains heredity information and promotes protein synthesis
  • Gene- basic unit of heredity on a chromosome
  • DNA- molecule in a chromosome that codes genetic information
what is ribonucleic acid rna
What Is Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)?
  • Transcription- process of RNA production by DNA
  • DNA-thread-like molecule which decodes DNA information
what is ribonucleic acid rna27
What Is Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)?
  • Kinds of RNA:
    • mRNA- RNA molecules that carry information that specifies amino acid sequence of a protein molecule during translation
    • rRNA- RNA molecules that form the ribosomal subunits; Mediate the translation of mRNA into proteins
    • tRNA- molecules that decode sequence information in and mRNA
    • snRNA- very short RNA that interconnects with to promote formation of mRNA
what are genetic engineering organisms
What Are Genetic Engineering Organisms?
  • Genetic engineering- artificially changing the genetic information in the cells of organisms
  • Transgenic- an organism that has been genetically modified
  • GMO- a genetically modified organism
  • GEO- a genetically enhanced organism
how can genetically engineered plants be used
How Can Genetically Engineered Plants Be Used?
  • Agriculture
  • Horticulture
  • Forestry
  • Environment
  • Food Quality
how do we create transgenic organisms
How Do We Create Transgenic Organisms?
  • Donor cell- cell that provides DNA
  • Recipient cell- cell that receives DNA
  • Protocol- procedure for a scientific process
  • Three methods used in gene transfer
    • Agrobacterium gene transfer- plasmid
    • Ballistic gene transfer- gene gun
    • Direct gene transfer- enzymes
how does agrobacterium gene transfer work
How Does Agrobacterium Gene Transfer Work?
  • Extract DNA from donor
  • Cut DNA into fragments
  • Sort DNA fragments
  • Recombine DNA fragments
  • Transfer plasmids with bonded DNA
  • Grow transformed (recipient) cells
what are methods of classical biotechnology
What Are Methods of Classical Biotechnology?
  • Plant breeding- improvement of plants by breeding selected individuals to achieve desired goals
  • Cultivar- a cultivated crop variety
what are methods of classical biotechnology33
What Are Methods of Classical Biotechnology?
  • Plant breeding methods;
    • Line breeding- breeding successive generations of plants among themselves
    • Crossbreeding- breeding plants of different varieties or species
    • Hybridization- breeding individuals from two distinctly different varieties
  • Selection
why are plants genetically engineered
Why Are Plants Genetically Engineered?
  • Resist pests
  • Resist herbicides
  • Improved product quality
  • Pharmaceuticals
  • Industrial products
what is ai
What Is AI?
  • Artificial insemination- the transfer of collected semen to a recipient female
  • Semen is collected from males of desired quality
  • Semen is graded and stored
what is ai36
What Is AI?
  • Female must be in estrus for conception
  • Hormone injections may be used to synchronize estrus
  • Semen is placed in the cervix near the horns of the uterus
what is a test tube baby
What Is a Test Tube Baby?
  • In vitro fertilization- fertilization of collected ova outside the reproductive tract; Usually in a test tube
    • Semen is collected from males of desired quality
    • Ova are removed from females
    • Sperm and ova are placed in a petri dish or test tube
what is gender reversal
What Is Gender Reversal?
  • Gender reversal- changing the sex of an animal
    • Very young animals receive hormone treatments
    • Most common among selected fish species
what is gender preselection
What Is Gender Preselection?
  • Gender preselection- choosing the sex of offspring
    • Sperm sorted before conception
    • Sperm sorted on basis of chromosome differences
    • X chromosomes produce female offspring
    • Y chromosomes produce male offspring
what is embryo transfer
What Is Embryo Transfer?
  • Embryo transfer- removing fertilized ova (embryos) from donor and implanting in a recipient
    • Surgical and nonsurgical methods are used to remove and implant
    • A quality donor female can produce more offspring
what is multiple ovulation
What Is Multiple Ovulation?
  • Multiple ovulation- promoting increased release of ova during estrus
    • Hormone injections administered prior to estrus
    • Used with embryo transfer
    • AI may be used to fertilize ova
    • After fertilization, embryos are removed and placed in recipients
what is cloning
What Is Cloning?
  • Clone- new organism that has been produced asexually from a single parent
  • Genotype is identical to parent
  • Cells or tissues are cultured
how are hormones used in animal production
How Are Hormones Used in Animal Production?
  • Hormone- natural product of glands to produce a response in another part of the body
    • Released by endocrine glands into blood system
    • Hormones are identified, functions determined, and isolated
    • Used to increase growth and production rates
    • bST- promotes milk production in cows
    • pST- promotes lean meat production in swine
what is bioremediation
What Is Bioremediation?
  • Bioremediation- using biological processes to solve environmental problems
  • Biodegradation- natural processes of microbes in breaking down hydrocarbon materials
  • Biodegradable- capable of being decomposed by microbes
how can bioremediation be used
How Can Bioremediation Be Used?
  • Oil spills
  • Wastewater treatment
  • Heavy metal removal
  • Chemical degradation
what is phytoremediation
What Is Phytoremediation?
  • Phytoremediation- process of plants being used to solve pollution problems
    • Plants absorb and break down pollutants
    • Used with heavy metals, pesticides, explosives, and leachate
what is composting
What Is Composting?
  • Composting- a process that promotes biological decomposition of organic matter
  • Compost bin- a facility that contains materials for composting
  • In-vessel composting- using enclosed containers for composting
what are bioethics
What Are Bioethics?
  • Ethics- knowing right from wrong, and then doing the right idea
  • Bio- living organisms
  • Bioethics- knowing right from wrong with living organisms, and then doing the right idea
creating bioethics arguments
Creating Bioethics Arguments
  • Read this article from the school website
  • After you read this article prepare ethical arguments with at least 5 Scientific and Factual claims to support your Premise and Conclusion
ethical arguments
Ethical Arguments
  • Create an ethical argument for or against the following topics
    • Human Cloning
    • Gender Reversal on Livestock
    • Gender Reversal on Humans
    • Genetic Engineering of Plants
    • Genetic Engineering of Humans
creating a premise
Creating a Premise
  • “Human cloning is immoral.”
  • Now you must find Scientific and Factual Claims to support your Premise
  • After you have at least 5 Claims, you may conclude, “Therefore, human cloning is immoral.”
  • You do not have to be for or against any of the topics, it’s your choice!