Coral reef ecosystems
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Coral Reef Ecosystems. Coral biology Reproduction: sexual and asexual Production and symbiosis Reef formation and habitats Factors affecting coral reef distribution Physical Zoogeographic Corals and sponges as biodiversity and habitat Diversity in fishes Reproduction and larval dispersal

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Coral reef ecosystems l.jpg
Coral Reef Ecosystems

  • Coral biology

    • Reproduction: sexual and asexual

    • Production and symbiosis

    • Reef formation and habitats

  • Factors affecting coral reef distribution

    • Physical

    • Zoogeographic

  • Corals and sponges as biodiversity and habitat

  • Diversity in fishes

    • Reproduction and larval dispersal

    • Diel activity rhythms and migrations


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Basic biology of corals

  • Corals are cnidarians in the class Anthozoa (including anemones and gorgonians); other classes are Scyphozoa (jellyfish) and Hydrozoa (hydroids, fire coral, etc.)

  • May be colonial or solitary, reef-building (hermatypic) or non-reef building

  • Most hermatypic corals are colonial but some (e.g., mushroom coral) are not

  • Reproduce asexually (by budding)and sexually

  • Sexual reproduction: can be hermaphroditic or dioecious. Sperm are released into the water, taken in by polyps, fertilization occurs in the female’s gastrovascular cavity, and planula larvae are released, often synchronously.


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Symbiosis

  • The coral animal lives symbiotically with zooxanthellae: dinoflagellates. Coral polyps feed at night on plankton but meet only a fraction of their nutritional requirements. Zooxanthellae provide the balance of the coral’s nutrition by photosynthesis and transfer to the coral. Corals kept in the dark feed but do not grow whereas those not fed but in the light can grow. Tropical marine waters are very unproductive (18-50 g C/m /yr) but the reefs can be very productive because the primary production is linked to the coral.

2






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Physical Factors Affecting Hermatypic (reef-building) coral

  • Temperature: ~ 18-30

  • Depth: Light needed for symbiotic algae < 25 m (some to 70 m)

  • Salinity ~ 32-35 ppt (to 42 in Persian Gulf)

  • Sediment: smother coral and block light

  • Wave-action: oxygenates, supplies plankton, removes sediment

  • Air: prolonged exposure kills coral


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Global distribution of corals

Tropic of Cancer 23.5 o N

Tropic of Capricorn 23.5oS

Coral zone


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Global diversity of reef building coral species

Number of Species

300 200 100 50 10


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Coral Biology

Reproduction Feeding


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Coral Reef Habitats

1

  • Supratidal pools

  • Intertidal pools

  • Grass beds

  • Patch reefs

  • Back reef flats, channels

  • Reef crest – breaker zone

  • Buttress zone

  • Fore-reefs

  • Drop-off

2

6

4

3

5

7

8

9

Micro-habitats: Coral , sponges

Temporal Structure: Day-Night

Larval Dispersal – Recruitment
















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In addition to corals, sponges constitute both a major part of the biodiversity of coral reef systems but they also join with corals to provide much of the three-dimensional structure in reefs. As such they provide critical habitat for many fish and invertebrate species.

Brittle star on an azure vase sponge


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arrow crab and azure vase sponge of the biodiversity of coral reef systems but they also join with corals to provide much of the three-dimensional structure in reefs. As such they provide critical habitat for many fish and invertebrate species.


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arrow crab of the biodiversity of coral reef systems but they also join with corals to provide much of the three-dimensional structure in reefs. As such they provide critical habitat for many fish and invertebrate species.


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arrow crab of the biodiversity of coral reef systems but they also join with corals to provide much of the three-dimensional structure in reefs. As such they provide critical habitat for many fish and invertebrate species.


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Brittle star on brown tube sponge of the biodiversity of coral reef systems but they also join with corals to provide much of the three-dimensional structure in reefs. As such they provide critical habitat for many fish and invertebrate species.


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Brittle star on brown volcano sponge of the biodiversity of coral reef systems but they also join with corals to provide much of the three-dimensional structure in reefs. As such they provide critical habitat for many fish and invertebrate species.


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Families of Coral Reef Fishes of the biodiversity of coral reef systems but they also join with corals to provide much of the three-dimensional structure in reefs. As such they provide critical habitat for many fish and invertebrate species.

Labridae - Wrasses

Chaetodontidae - Butterflyfishes

Scaridae - Parrotfishes

Carcharhinidae


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Families of Coral Reef Fishes of the biodiversity of coral reef systems but they also join with corals to provide much of the three-dimensional structure in reefs. As such they provide critical habitat for many fish and invertebrate species.

Muraenidae

Lutjanidae

Carangidae

Pomadasyidae

Serranidae

Aulostomidae


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Families of Coral Reef Fishes of the biodiversity of coral reef systems but they also join with corals to provide much of the three-dimensional structure in reefs. As such they provide critical habitat for many fish and invertebrate species.

Balistidae – Triggerfishes and Filefishes

Acanthuridae

Acanthuridae


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Moorish idol of the biodiversity of coral reef systems but they also join with corals to provide much of the three-dimensional structure in reefs. As such they provide critical habitat for many fish and invertebrate species.


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Families of Coral Reef Fishes of the biodiversity of coral reef systems but they also join with corals to provide much of the three-dimensional structure in reefs. As such they provide critical habitat for many fish and invertebrate species.

Pomacentridae - Damselfishes

Diodontidae - Porcupinefishes

Tetraodontidae - Puffers

Ostraciontidae - Boxfishes


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balloonfish of the biodiversity of coral reef systems but they also join with corals to provide much of the three-dimensional structure in reefs. As such they provide critical habitat for many fish and invertebrate species.


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clown fish of the biodiversity of coral reef systems but they also join with corals to provide much of the three-dimensional structure in reefs. As such they provide critical habitat for many fish and invertebrate species.


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Reproduction and larval dispersal of the biodiversity of coral reef systems but they also join with corals to provide much of the three-dimensional structure in reefs. As such they provide critical habitat for many fish and invertebrate species.

Bluehead wrasse

Many coral reef fishes are sequential (often protogynous rather than protandrous) or even simultaneous hermaphrodites. In addition to this consideration, species may broadcast planktonic eggs or deposit them in nests. The dispersal patterns are important for recruitment.

Nassau grouper


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Coral Reef Ecosystems of the biodiversity of coral reef systems but they also join with corals to provide much of the three-dimensional structure in reefs. As such they provide critical habitat for many fish and invertebrate species.

Larvae from pelagic eggs

Larvae from non-pelagic eggs

Relative abundance (%)

0 20 40 60 80 100

Bay channel 0-5 5-2 2-8 10-12 12 km

Distance from Hawaiian Island of Oahu

Leis in Sale (ed.) 1991


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Coral Microhabitat of the biodiversity of coral reef systems but they also join with corals to provide much of the three-dimensional structure in reefs. As such they provide critical habitat for many fish and invertebrate species.

Day

Night


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Coral Microhabitat of the biodiversity of coral reef systems but they also join with corals to provide much of the three-dimensional structure in reefs. As such they provide critical habitat for many fish and invertebrate species.

Day

Night


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parrotfish of the biodiversity of coral reef systems but they also join with corals to provide much of the three-dimensional structure in reefs. As such they provide critical habitat for many fish and invertebrate species.


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sleeping parrotfish of the biodiversity of coral reef systems but they also join with corals to provide much of the three-dimensional structure in reefs. As such they provide critical habitat for many fish and invertebrate species.


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glasseye sweeper of the biodiversity of coral reef systems but they also join with corals to provide much of the three-dimensional structure in reefs. As such they provide critical habitat for many fish and invertebrate species.


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squirrelfish of the biodiversity of coral reef systems but they also join with corals to provide much of the three-dimensional structure in reefs. As such they provide critical habitat for many fish and invertebrate species.


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white grunt: solitary, diurnal of the biodiversity of coral reef systems but they also join with corals to provide much of the three-dimensional structure in reefs. As such they provide critical habitat for many fish and invertebrate species.


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post-larval grunts: of the biodiversity of coral reef systems but they also join with corals to provide much of the three-dimensional structure in reefs. As such they provide critical habitat for many fish and invertebrate species.

schooling, diurnal









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