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Biotechnology. What Is Biotechnology?. Using scientific methods with organisms to produce new products or new forms of organisms

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what is biotechnology
What Is Biotechnology?
  • Using scientific methods with organisms to produce new products or new forms of organisms
  • Any technique that uses living organisms or substances from those organisms to make or modify a product, to improve plants or animals, or to develop microorganisms for specific uses
  • Bio means life or living
  • Biotechnology is the application of living processes to technology
what is biotechnology4
What Is Biotechnology?
  • GMO- genetically modified organisms.
  • GEO- genetically enhanced organisms.
  • With both, the natural genetic material of the organism has been altered.
  • Roots in bread making, wine brewing, cheese and yogurt fermentation, and classical plant and animal breeding
what is biotechnology5
What Is Biotechnology?
  • Manipulation of genes is called genetic engineering or recombinant DNA technology
  • Genetic engineering involves taking one or more genes from a location in one organism and either
    • Transferring them to another organism
    • Putting them back into the original organism in different combinations
what is the career outlook in biotechnology
What is the career outlook in biotechnology?
  • Biotech in 1998
    • 1,300 companies in the US
    • 2/3 have less than 135 employees
    • 140,000 jobs
  • Jobs will continue to increase exponentially
  • Jobs are available to high school graduates through PhD’s
what subjects are involved with biotechnology
What Subjects Are Involved With Biotechnology?
  • Multidisciplinary- involving a number of disciplines that are coordinated for a desired outcome
  • Science
    • Life sciences
    • Physical sciences
    • Social sciences
what subjects are involved with biotechnology8
What Subjects Are Involved With Biotechnology?
  • Mathematics
  • Applied sciences
    • Computer applications
    • Engineering
    • Agriculture
what are the stages of biotechnology development
What Are the Stages of Biotechnology Development
  • Ancient biotechnology- early history as related to food and shelter; Includes domestication
  • Classical biotechnology- built on ancient biotechnology; Fermentation promoted food production, and medicine
  • Modern biotechnology- manipulates genetic information in organism; Genetic engineering
what are the areas of biotechnology
What Are the Areas of Biotechnology?
  • Organismic biotechnology- uses intact organisms; Does not alter genetic material
  • Molecular biotechnology- alters genetic makeup to achieve specific goals
    • Transgenic organism- an organism with artificially altered genetic material
what are the benefits of biotechnology
What Are the Benefits of Biotechnology?
  • Medicine
    • Human
    • Veterinary
    • Biopharming
  • Environment
  • Agriculture
  • Food products
  • Industry and manufacturing
what did these individuals contribute to biotechnology
What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology?
  • Friedrich Meischer
  • Observed that the nuclei of all cells contain a slightly acidic substance. He named the substance NUCLEIC ACID.
  • This was later changed to DNA
what did these individuals contribute to biotechnology13
What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology?
  • Anton van Leeuwenhoek
  • Discovered cells
    • Bacteria
    • Protists
    • Red blood
what did these individuals contribute to biotechnology14
What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology?
  • Gregor Johan Mendel
  • Discovered genetics
  • Genetics is the biology of heredity
what did these individuals contribute to biotechnology16
What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology?
  • Thomas Hunt Morgan
  • Discovered how genes are transmitted through chromosomes
what did these individuals contribute to biotechnology17
What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology?
  • Ernst Ruska
  • Invented the electron microscope
what did these individuals contribute to biotechnology18
What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology?
  • Sir Alexander Fleming
  • Discovered penicillin
what did these individuals contribute to biotechnology19
What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology?
  • Rosalind Elsie Franklin
  • Research led to the discovery of the double helix structure of DNA
what did these individuals contribute to biotechnology20
What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology?
  • James Watson and Francis Crick
  • Discovered DNA
what did these individuals contribute to biotechnology21
What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology?
  • Mary-Claire King
  • Mapped human genes for research of cancer treatments
what did these individuals contribute to biotechnology22
What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology?
  • Ian Wilmut
  • Created the first true clone, the Dorset ewe Dolly
what is molecular biology
What Is Molecular Biology?
  • Molecular biology- study of molecules in cells
  • Metabolism- processes by which organisms use nutrients
  • Anabolism- building tissues from smaller materials
  • Catabolism- breaking down materials into smaller components
what is a cell
What Is a Cell?
  • Cell- a discrete unit of life
  • Unicellular organism- organism of one cell
  • Multicellular organism- organism of many cells
  • Prokaryote- cells that lack specific nucleus
  • Eukaryote- cells with well-defined nucleus
what is a cell25
What Is a Cell?
  • Cells are building blocks:
    • Tissue- collection of cells with specific functions
    • Organs- collections of tissues with specific functions
    • Organ systems- collections of organs with specific functions
what are the structures in molecular genetics
What Are the Structures in Molecular Genetics?
  • Molecular genetics- study of genes and how they are expressed
  • Chromosome- part of cell nucleus that contains heredity information and promotes protein synthesis
  • Gene- basic unit of heredity on a chromosome
  • DNA- molecule in a chromosome that codes genetic information
deoxyribonucleic acid
Deoxyribonucleic Acid
  • DNA
  • Coded material in a cell is called DNA
  • It is the coded material in a cell that determines what the cell and its successive cells will become.
dna occurs in pairs of strands intertwined with each other and connected by chemicals called bases
DNA occurs in pairs of strands intertwined with each other and connected by chemicals called bases

The different bases in DNA are:





The first letters of each word A, G, C, and T have become known as the genetic alphabet of the language of life.

what is ribonucleic acid rna
What Is Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)?
  • Transcription- process of RNA production by DNA
  • DNA-thread-like molecule which decodes DNA information
what is ribonucleic acid rna31
What Is Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)?
  • Kinds of RNA:
    • mRNA- RNA molecules that carry information that specifies amino acid sequence of a protein molecule during translation
    • rRNA- RNA molecules that form the ribosomal subunits; Mediate the translation of mRNA into proteins
    • tRNA- molecules that decode sequence information in and mRNA
    • snRNA- very short RNA that interconnects with to promote formation of mRNA
improvement by genetics
Improvement by Genetics
  • Genetics-The biology of heredity
  • Heredity-The transmission of characteristics from an organism to its offspring through genes in reproductive cells
  • Genes-Components of cells which determine the individual characteristics of living things.
improvement by genetics33
Improvement by Genetics
  • Generation-Refers to the offspring or PROGENY of common parents.
what are genetic engineering organisms
What Are Genetic Engineering Organisms?
  • Genetic engineering- artificially changing the genetic information in the cells of organisms
  • Transgenic- an organism that has been genetically modified
  • GMO- a genetically modified organism
  • GEO- a genetically enhanced organism
how can genetically engineered plants be used
How Can Genetically Engineered Plants Be Used?
  • Agriculture
  • Horticulture
  • Forestry
  • Environment
  • Food Quality
  • Animals or organisms etc. that have been modified using genetic engineering methods to contain genes that are not naturally found in the animal.
  • The new gene is inserted into the chromosomes of the transgenic organism, it may be transmitted to future offspring.
what could some possible reasons be
  • Adding a clotting agent to the blood that would help dissolve clots.
  • What if:
    • Cancer free genetics?
    • Aids free genetics
      • Creating something that was resistant to these diseases???IS IT POSSIBLE?
how do we create transgenic organisms
How Do We Create Transgenic Organisms?
  • Donor cell- cell that provides DNA
  • Recipient cell- cell that receives DNA
  • Protocol- procedure for a scientific process
  • Three methods used in gene transfer
    • Agrobacterium gene transfer- plasmid
    • Ballistic gene transfer- gene gun
    • Direct gene transfer- enzymes
how does agrobacterium gene transfer work
How Does Agrobacterium Gene Transfer Work?
  • Extract DNA from donor
  • Cut DNA into fragments
  • Sort DNA fragments
  • Recombine DNA fragments
  • Transfer plasmids with bonded DNA
  • Grow transformed (recipient) cells
what are methods of classical biotechnology
What Are Methods of Classical Biotechnology?
  • Plant breeding- improvement of plants by breeding selected individuals to achieve desired goals
  • Cultivar- a cultivated crop variety
what are methods of classical biotechnology41
What Are Methods of Classical Biotechnology?
  • Plant breeding methods;
    • Line breeding- breeding successive generations of plants among themselves
    • Crossbreeding- breeding plants of different varieties or species
    • Hybridization- breeding individuals from two distinctly different varieties
  • Selection
improvement by selection
Improvement by Selection
  • Means picking the best plants or animals for producing the next generation.
  • Selective Breeding-selection of parents to get desirable characteristics in the offspring.
why are plants genetically engineered
Why Are Plants Genetically Engineered?
  • Resist pests
  • Resist herbicides
  • Improved product quality
  • Pharmaceuticals
  • Industrial products
ice minus
  • Bacteria that was genetically altered to retard frost formation on plant leaves.
  • Why would this be a good thing?Why would this be a bad thing?
bst and pst
  • Bovine somatotropin-increase milk production in cattle
  • Porcine somatotropin-increases meat production in swine
  • One of the first commercial products made by genetic engineering.
  • Insulin is the chemical used by people with diabetes to control their blood sugar levels.
what is ai
What Is AI?
  • Artificial insemination- the transfer of collected semen to a recipient female
  • Semen is collected from males of desired quality
  • Semen is graded and stored
what is ai48
What Is AI?
  • Female must be in estrus for conception
  • Hormone injections may be used to synchronize estrus
  • Semen is placed in the cervix near the horns of the uterus
what is a test tube baby
What Is a Test Tube Baby?
  • In vitro fertilization- fertilization of collected ova outside the reproductive tract; Usually in a test tube
    • Semen is collected from males of desired quality
    • Ova are removed from females
    • Sperm and ova are placed in a petri dish or test tube
what is gender reversal
What Is Gender Reversal?
  • Gender reversal- changing the sex of an animal
    • Very young animals receive hormone treatments
    • Most common among selected fish species
what is gender preselection
What Is Gender Preselection?
  • Gender preselection- choosing the sex of offspring
    • Sperm sorted before conception
    • Sperm sorted on basis of chromosome differences
    • X chromosomes produce female offspring
    • Y chromosomes produce male offspring
what is embryo transfer
What Is Embryo Transfer?
  • Embryo transfer- removing fertilized ova (embryos) from donor and implanting in a recipient
    • Surgical and nonsurgical methods are used to remove and implant
    • A quality donor female can produce more offspring
what is multiple ovulation
What Is Multiple Ovulation?
  • Multiple ovulation- promoting increased release of ova during estrus
    • Hormone injections administered prior to estrus
    • Used with embryo transfer
    • AI may be used to fertilize ova
    • After fertilization, embryos are removed and placed in recipients
  • Exact duplicate of something.
what is cloning
What Is Cloning?
  • Clone- new organism that has been produced asexually from a single parent
  • Genotype is identical to parent
  • Cells or tissues are cultured
how are hormones used in animal production
How Are Hormones Used in Animal Production?
  • Hormone- natural product of glands to produce a response in another part of the body
    • Released by endocrine glands into blood system
    • Hormones are identified, functions determined, and isolated
    • Used to increase growth and production rates
    • bST- promotes milk production in cows
    • pST- promotes lean meat production in swine
genetic engineering
Genetic Engineering
  • Refers to the movement of genetic information in the form of genes from one cell to another. Genes are comprised of DNA
  • The process of identifying the location of a specific gene on a chromosome is known as mapping.
  • Gene mapping is the process of finding and recording the location of genes.
genetic engineering58
Genetic Engineering
  • The process of removing and inserting genes into DNA is called gene splicing or recombinant DNA.
what is bioremediation
What Is Bioremediation?
  • Bioremediation- using biological processes to solve environmental problems
  • Biodegradation- natural processes of microbes in breaking down hydrocarbon materials
  • Biodegradable- capable of being decomposed by microbes
how can bioremediation be used
How Can Bioremediation Be Used?
  • Oil spills
  • Wastewater treatment
  • Heavy metal removal
  • Chemical degradation
what is phytoremediation
What Is Phytoremediation?
  • Phytoremediation- process of plants being used to solve pollution problems
    • Plants absorb and break down pollutants
    • Used with heavy metals, pesticides, explosives, and leachate
what is composting
What Is Composting?
  • Composting- a process that promotes biological decomposition of organic matter
  • Compost bin- a facility that contains materials for composting
  • In-vessel composting- using enclosed containers for composting
what are bioethics
What Are Bioethics?
  • Ethics- knowing right from wrong, and then doing the right idea
  • Bio- living organisms
  • Bioethics- knowing right from wrong with living organisms, and then doing the right idea
creating bioethics arguments
Creating Bioethics Arguments
  • Read this article from the school website
  • After you read this article prepare ethical arguments with at least 5 Scientific and Factual claims to support your Premise and Conclusion
ethical arguments
Ethical Arguments
  • Create an ethical argument for or against the following topics
    • Human Cloning
    • Gender Reversal on Livestock
    • Gender Reversal on Humans
    • Genetic Engineering of Plants
    • Genetic Engineering of Humans
creating a premise
Creating a Premise
  • “Human cloning is immoral.”
  • Now you must find Scientific and Factual Claims to support your Premise
  • After you have at least 5 Claims, you may conclude, “Therefore, human cloning is immoral.”
  • You do not have to be for or against any of the topics, it’s your choice!