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Weekend Warriors and Injury Prevention David Berkson, MD Drexel University COM Family Medicine/Sports Medicine Overview Define Weekend Warrior Reasons for Injury General Prevention Sport-specific Prevention Wrap Up Weekend Warrior - Definition Part-time participant in fitness activity

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weekend warriors and injury prevention

Weekend Warriors and Injury Prevention

David Berkson, MD

Drexel University COM

Family Medicine/Sports Medicine

  • Define Weekend Warrior
  • Reasons for Injury
  • General Prevention
  • Sport-specific Prevention
  • Wrap Up
weekend warrior definition
Weekend Warrior - Definition
  • Part-time participant in fitness activity
  • Most commonly on weekends
  • Usually attempts to squeeze in all fitness activity of the week into small number of sessions (one or two)
  • Usually does more than his/her body is ready to do
weekend warrior why
Weekend Warrior - Why??
  • “Not enough time during the week to fit in workouts.”
  • “Can’t find people to participate in the activity I want during the week.”
  • “Too much of a hassle to get up early or stay away from home late.”
  • “I don’t know, I’m lazy.”
weekend warrior problems
Weekend Warrior - Problems
  • Sprains
  • Strains
  • Fractures
  • Pulled muscles
  • Contusions
  • Lacerations
  • Etc, etc, etc...
weekend warrior problems6
Weekend Warrior - Problems
  • The most common reason for injury during participation is trying to do more than the body can handle
weekend warrior problems7
Weekend Warrior - Problems
  • Why does the body have trouble handling the stress of participation??
  • Muscular Fitness
  • Cardiovascular Fitness
  • Nutritional Fitness
  • Improper Technique
avoiding problems
Avoiding Problems
  • Best ways to prepare the body for the stress of being a weekend warrior:
  • Turn the weekend warrior into a routine exerciser
  • Improve nutrition
  • Proper technique during activity
fitting fitness in
Fitting Fitness In
  • Physical inactivity can be as damaging to health as smoking
  • Need to make exercise/workouts work for you
  • Exercise does not have to have military mentality
  • Should be fun and enjoyable
fitting fitness in11
Fitting Fitness In
  • First step - commit yourself to daily physical activity
  • Pencil an appointment for a fitness session and make it mandatory
  • Second step - goals, short and long-term
fitting fitness in tips
Fitting Fitness In - Tips
  • Bits and pieces
  • Avoid “all or nothing” viewpoint
  • Be realistic
  • Keep perspective
fitting fitness in tips13
Fitting Fitness In - Tips
  • Keep equipment on hand
  • Grab a friend/partner
  • Utilize spare time
recommended workouts
Recommended Workouts
  • 3-5 sessions/week of aerobic workouts
  • 2-3 sessions/week of strength training
  • 2-3 sessions/week of flexibility
  • Start low and gradually build up
aerobic workouts
Aerobic Workouts
  • Running, biking, brisk walking, etc.
  • 20-60 minutes per day
  • Split time into multiple smaller workouts
  • Be creative with time at work and home
creative workouts
Use stairs

Walk longer/farther

Carry one bag of groceries at a time

Start a hobby that involves movement

Chores are your exercise friend

Turn off the TV

Learn to dance, new sport

Join active groups

Creative Workouts
strength training
Strength Training
  • 1 set each of 8-10 exercises involving all major muscle groups
  • 5 reps or less - muscle building
  • 8-12 reps - muscle/tone/aerobic
  • 12-20 reps - tone/aerobic
strength training18
Strength Training
  • Technique is key - bad technique leads to more injuries
  • Keep dumbbell/barbell on hand for “down time”
flexibility training
Flexibility Training
  • Stretch all major muscles
  • Can be done almost anywhere - home, work, car, etc.
  • Don’t forget about head/neck/back
  • Technique is very important - use partner
nutritional fitness
Nutritional Fitness
  • Exercise requires energy
  • Adequate calories is one of keys to enhancing performance
  • Follow food guide pyramid to include proper amounts of all 5 food groups
  • Satisfy macronutrient and micronutrient requirements
  • Muscles use carbs as primary source of fuel
  • High-carb diet increases stores and improves performance
  • 60-70% of daily calories from carbs
  • Longer exercise sessions can deplete muscle carb stores
  • Consume 30-75 grams of carbs per hour of exercise
  • Eat large carb meal within 2 hours after extended workout/exercise to replace lost stores
  • Secondary source of energy for exercising muscles
  • More important for prolonged, low intensity exercise
  • 20% of daily calories from fats - mostly unsaturated
  • Minor role in energy
  • Current recommendation is 0.4 grams protein per pound of body weight
  • Athletes/active people require more
  • 10-20% daily calories
vitamins minerals
Vitamins & Minerals
  • Not directly related to energy, but essential for food metabolism and energy production
  • Most commonly deficient: iron and calcium
  • Women require higher amounts of iron and calcium than men
  • “The Ultimate Nutrient”
  • Makes up 60-70% of body weight
  • Makes up 70-75% of muscle
  • Extremely vital functions in the body
water vital functions
Water - Vital Functions
  • Helps digest food
  • Helps lubricate joints, cushion organs
  • Transports nutrients/waste products
  • Carries waste products out of the body
  • Regulates body temperature
  • Disrupts ability to perform optimally
  • First few hours, water lost from blood volume
  • Next cells lose water and become overheated
  • Impaired functioning
  • Water loss of 9-12% of total body weight can be fatal
  • Hydration is one of the most frequently overlooked aspects of fitness/exercise
staying hydrated
Staying Hydrated
  • Thirst - the natural hydration meter
  • Adequate under resting conditions
  • During exercise you lose water faster than the brain realizes
  • By the time you feel thirsty, you are already dehydrated
staying hydrated31
Staying Hydrated
  • Have to take into account baseline water loss
  • Lose 12 oz per day by breathing
  • Lose 24 oz per day through skin
  • Strenuous exercise can lose 4 lbs of water (2 quarts) per hour
staying hydrated complex
Staying Hydrated - Complex
  • Body requires 1 ml of water for each calorie you burn
  • Inactive person burns 1500 calories per day = 1.5 liters of water
  • Active person burns 4,000 calories per day = 4 liters of water
staying hydrated simple
Staying Hydrated - Simple
  • Weigh before and after exercise session
  • Need to drink at least 1 cup (16 oz) per pound of body weight lost
  • Must regain weight prior to next session
  • Plan on drinking that amount during next session to avoid dehydration
staying hydrated simpler
Staying Hydrated - Simpler
  • Monitor the color of urine
  • If urine is clear - drinking enough
  • If urine is dark - need to drink more
  • Urinate approx every 2-4 hrs, if going more than drinking too much
tips for staying hydrated
Tips for Staying Hydrated
  • Keep water bottle (filled) at desk at work
  • Stock refrigerator at home with water instead of soda
  • Flavor water more to individual taste
  • If exercise outside, bring frozen water bottle - water thaws at proper drink rate
sports drinks
Sports Drinks
  • Only needed if exercise session lasts longer than 1 hour
  • Not required if exercise frequently in small time frames
  • May provide better hydration due to taste - people will drink more if it tastes better
athletic shoes
Athletic Shoes
  • Type of shoe depends upon type of foot and type and frequency of activity
  • Various activities infrequently - wear all-purpose cross trainers
  • Specific sport at least 3 times per week - wear sport-specific shoes
athletic shoes activity
Athletic Shoes - Activity
  • Runners or Aerobics - shoes with good impact-absorbing cushioning
  • Walkers - heel impact cushioning plus good roll off at toes
  • Court sports - side-to-side ankle stabilization (sole can’t be too thick)
athletic shoes feet
Athletic Shoes - Feet
  • Arch of foot - high, medium, low
  • High-arched foot not very flexible - cushioned shoe
  • Low-arched (flat-footed) too flexible - motion control shoe
  • Medium arched - stability shoe
athletic shoes fitting
Athletic Shoes - Fitting
  • Measure feet at end of day when largest
  • Measure both feet
  • Wear workout attire
  • Try on shoes - sizes vary by make
  • 1 thumb width from longest toe to end of toe box
athletic shoes fitting42
Athletic Shoes - Fitting
  • Feel comfortable through arch
  • Hold heel firmly
  • Women need to be extra cautious
  • Some “women’s shoes” are downsized men’s shoes
athletic shoes maintenance
Athletic Shoes - Maintenance
  • Allow time for shoe to adapt to foot and foot to adapt to shoe
  • Monitor condition of shoes as use them
  • 300-500 miles - cushioning wears out
  • Have multiple pair of shoes for activity and rotate
  • Most common injury is overuse
  • Feet absorb 110 tons of energy every mile run
  • 70% of runners develop injury every year
  • Key is prevention
injury prevention running
Injury Prevention - Running
  • Run less than 45 miles per week
  • Increase mileage < 10% per week
  • Run on soft, flat terrain
  • Stop running if have pain
  • Alternate hard and easy training days
injury prevention running46
Injury Prevention - Running
  • Stretch before run - calves, hamstrings, quadriceps, groin, back
  • Orthotics - only needed if have biomechanical foot problems and suffer from repeated injuries
  • Change shoes every 500 miles
  • Most common injury is overuse
  • Most common problem is in technique
  • Shoulder injuries most common
  • In 1 year swimmers can complete up to 2 million arm strokes
injury prevention swimming
Injury Prevention - Swimming
  • Continual reinforcement of proper stroke mechanics is essential
  • Stretching - arms, shoulders, neck, back, legs
  • Gradual increase in distance and intensity
injury prevention swimming49
Injury Prevention - Swimming
  • Swimming incorporates all major muscle groups
  • Muscle conditioning and strengthening is key in avoiding injury
  • Avoid overtraining in competitive swimmers
  • Most common injury is overuse
  • Most common problem is in technique
  • Work on all-around flexibility and strength
  • Get expert instruction periodically to ensure proper technique
injury prevention tennis
Injury Prevention - Tennis
  • Ensure proper warm up
  • Improve baseline cardiovascular conditioning
  • Stretch calves, quads, hamstrings
  • Stay hydrated
injury prevention tennis52
Injury Prevention - Tennis
  • Wear proper shoes and socks
  • Chose right racket and string tension
  • Care for minor injuries (blisters) early
  • Technique, technique, technique
weight training
Weight Training
  • Most common injury is overuse
  • Most common problem is technique
  • Start with appropriate program
  • Get instruction on proper weight and especially technique
weight training club benefits
Weight Training - Club Benefits
  • Adult stimulation
  • Social climate
  • Club professionals
  • Multiple exercise options
free weights vs machines


Muscle grouping



Directed Form



Free Weights vs Machines
  • Best bet for weekend warrior is to increase baseline activity level
  • Avoid overuse by starting low, going slow, and ensuring proper technique
  • Remember proper nutrition and hydration