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Netherlands Antilles Sustainable Development. Netherlands Antilles Sustainable Development Coordination Group - Barbados Programme of Action -. Kingdom of the Netherlands. Consisting of three countries: Netherlands Antilles Aruba Netherlands

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netherlands antilles sustainable development

Netherlands Antilles Sustainable Development

Netherlands Antilles Sustainable Development Coordination Group

- Barbados Programme of Action -

kingdom of the netherlands
Kingdom of the Netherlands
  • Consisting of three countries:
    • Netherlands Antilles
    • Aruba
    • Netherlands
  • Netherlands Antilles are fully autonomous in internal affairs. Official language Dutch
netherlands antilles
Netherlands Antilles
  • Leeward Islands: (Language Papiamentu)
    • Curaçao Area 444 km2 Population 130.000
    • Bonaire Area 288 km2 Population 12.000
  • Windward Islands: (Language English)
    • St Martin Area: 34 km2 Population 42.000
    • St. Eustatius Area: 21 km2 Population 2.200
netherlands antilles cont
Netherlands Antilles (Cont)
    • Saba Area 13 km2 Population 1.400
  • National Statistics
    • Overall Area: 800 km2 Distance between Leewards and Windwards: 900 km
    • Overall Population 185.000
    • Per Capita Income US 11,000
sustainable development constraints gaps
Sustainable Development Constraints, Gaps
  • Federal Government Structure: in practice a federation of five administrative entities, strong local island identification (policy formulation vs. implementation)
    • 185.000 people, 6 governments and parliaments
  • Problems of Scale between the islands:
    • consequences for:
      • human resources
      • capital/funding
      • government motivation
sustainabledevelopment constraints gaps cont
SustainableDevelopment Constraints, Gaps cont.
  • Problems of Coordination of Policies
  • Problems of funding sources
  • Sustainable Development Awareness and Motivation
  • Skewed income distribution and increasing poverty
  • Volatile Economics
actions taken
Actions Taken:
  • Climate Change
    • Historical Willemstad and half of Bonaire at sealevel, but no action taken yet against rise of sealevel. Water Desalination Plants critically located
  • Natural and Environmental Disasters
    • St. Martin and Curaçao have disaster plans in place.
  • Waste Management
    • Landfills on most islands. Federal Cooperation between island waste management companies
    • two wastewater treatment plants on Curaçao, one or two planned in Bonaire
actions taken cont
Actions Taken Cont. :
  • Coastal and Marine management
    • Marine Conservation Parks in place in all the islands. Legislation varies
    • Bonaire and Saba have Coastal Management laws and policies in place, Curaçao not yet approved.
    • Bonaire internationally recognized as best manegement practice of Coral Reef management together with Belize. Recently also Saba got recognition as such.
actions taken cont 2
Actions Taken Cont. 2 :
  • Freshwater Resources
    • Curaçao: 100 percent desalination through distillation in conjunction with energy production
      • Planned switch to smaller reverse osmosis plants on different sites on the island
    • Bonaire and St. Martin, 100 % reverse osmosis
    • Saba and Statia ; Rainwater catchment. Statia has water quality/quantity problems
actions taken cont 3
Actions Taken: (Cont 3)
  • Land Resources
    • mining of limestone on Curaçao, limited agriculture on all the islands (less than 5 %) of food consumption
actions taken cont 4
Actions Taken: (Cont 4)
  • Energy Resources
    • 80 year Refinery on Curaçao, government owned and leased to Venezuala’s PdVSA
    • Diesel Energy Plants on all islands
    • Curaçao and Bonaire have wind and solar energy regimes belonging to the best in the world
    • Two wind energy parks ion Curaçao and Energy Company just signed agreement with Coastal Hotels for Cold Seawater Cooling Systems
actions taken cont 5
Actions Taken: (Cont 5)
  • Tourism Resources
    • Introduction of Quality Tags for marine and land based tourism facilities in Curaçao and Bonaire
    • 2004 Expansion to other islands
    • Sustainable Tourism Awareness Programme incoming Tourists from Europe for Curaçao and Bonaire
    • 2004 Expansion to American, regional and local tourism
    • Recycling programmes with Hotels
    • Inclusion Willemstad UNESCO World Heritage List
actions taken cont 6
Actions Taken: (Cont 6)
  • Biodiversity Resources
    • National Nature Policy Law and Masterplan in Place
    • Island legislation behind schedule
    • Full membership and implementation of SPAW Protocol (Cartagena Convention), CITES, Turtle Convention a.o.
    • Land and Marine Parks in place on all islands
    • feasibility Study on going for establishing a national Trustfund for Nature to finance marine and land based parks
actions taken cont 7
Actions Taken: (Cont 7)
  • Human Resource Development
    • Profound Reorganization of Primary and Secondary Schooling System on Curaçao, Bonaire and St. Eustatius
    • Expansion of University through cooperation in the region
    • ongoing brain drain to Holland
  • Implementation
    • BPOA Coordination Group proposed and operative
    • National Assessment Report planned to be ready well before Mauritius