PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE/CONTINUOUS FORMS
PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE • FORM: Ex: I’ve just come back from Las Vegas
PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE • USES: • We often need to talk about things which happened or started to happen in the past and which are linked to the present or future. • Ex: He´s just started a new job. He walks celebrities’ dogs in Central Park.
PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE • PAST EXPERIENCE • Lucy has read many Shakespeare´s plays. (when exactly?????)
Just,Yet, Already, Ever, Never • Just often emphasises the idea of close to the present • I've JUST spoken to Jane. She's not going to join us for supper tonight.
Just, yet,already,ever,never • ALREADY (aff, int) • Already suggests that something has happened sooner than expected and again is linked with present time and therefore the present perfect: • Do you want me to make the salad for supper tonight? ~ I've already made it. It's on the table.
Just,Yet, Already, Ever, Never • YET. (neg. int) • I don't think you've met Rachel yet, have you? ~ • No, I haven't. I've met a lot of your friends from work, but I've not met Rachel yet. • ~ She's absolutely lovely. I'm sure you'll like her…
Just,Yet, Already, Ever, Never • NEVER, EVER • Haveyoueverdriven a car with manual drive? • ~ No, I neverhave. I'vealwaysdrivencars withautomatic drive. • ~ It'snottoodifficult. You'llsoongetusedtoit …
OTHER EXPRESSIONS • FOR • SINCE • SO FAR • RECENTLY • TODAY • THIS MONTH/WEEK/YEAR…(as long as it’s unfinished)
PRESENT CONTINUOUS/PROGRESSIVE • We use the present perfect continuous, however, if there is a suggestion that the activity is not yet completed • My brother has been painting my house
PRESENT CONTINUOUS/PROGRESSIVE • We wish to emphasise the length of time it has lasted or stress the continuous, on-going nature of the activity • 'How long have you been waiting for this bus?‘ • ‘I’ve been standing here for over half an hour. These buses never come.'
Present perfect continuous vs present perfect simple • Present P. S • We focus on the result. We focus on the completed action • Sophie has written five novels recently. • RESULT: FIVE NOVELS
Present perfect continuous vs present perfect simple • Present P. Continuous • We are interested in the action itself. We don´t really care if it´s finished or not. • Lucy has been working on her new novel for seven months.
PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS • My hands are dirty. I´ve been repairing the car for 3 days. • Look at you!! You´re sweating. How long have you been dancing? • (Result / evidence of an action).
Time expressions • FOR / SINCE • They´ve been playing tennis since 2 o´clock. • HOW LONG...? • How long have you been reading books? • OTHERS • Mary is still writing letters. She´s been writing letters all day.