REGIONAL ORGANIZATIONS: THEIR EVOLUTION IN LATIN AMERICAN AND THE CARIBBEAN David A. Novelo
OBJECTIVES • To understand the missions of different regional organizations in the LAC area . • To become familiar with the Unidad Humanitaria de Rescate de America Central (UHR; C.A. Humanitarian Unit of Search and Rescue). • To learn about specific regional issues for disaster reduction and mitigation. • To understand the importance of coordination and communication between the national, regional, bilateral, and international organizations before and during natural disasters. • To learn about the evolution of emergency operations centers in LAC.
The Caribbean Disaster Emergency Response Agency (CDERA) • Inter-governmental regional disaster management organization established in 1991 by an Agreement of Heads of Government of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM). • The Headquarters are located in Barbados.
Anguilla Antigua and Barbuda Bahamas Barbados Belize British Virgin Islands Dominica Grenada Guyana Jamaica Montserrat Republic of Saint Christopher and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Trinidad and Tobago CDERA: 16 Participating States
CDERA: FUNCTIONS Main Function: • To make an immediate and coordinated response to any disastrous event affecting any Participating State, once the state requests such assistance. Other Functions: • · Securing, collating and channelling to interested governmental and non-governmental organizations, comprehensive and reliable information on disasters affecting the region. • · Mitigating or eliminating as far as possible, the consequences of disasters affecting Participating States. • · Establishing and maintaining on a sustainable basis, adequate disaster response capabilities among Participating States. • · Mobilizing and coordinating disaster relief from governmental and non-governmental organizations for affected Participating States.
CDERA: RECENT ACTIVITIES • While the present focus of the Agency is on Disaster Preparedness and Response, its current activities address issues relevant to all phases of the Disaster cycle: • Preparedness • Response • Recovery • Rebuilding • Prevention • Mitigation
CEPREDENAC • LEGAL STATUTES: Signed in Guatemala, 29 October, 1993, by the Foreign Affairs Ministers of: Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama.
CEPREDENAC: Objectives • CEPREDENAC will promote and coordinate the international cooperation, exchange of information, experience, and technology contributing to the process of decision- making for natural disaster reduction and prevention in the Central American region.
CEPREDENAC: POLITICAL REGIONAL FRAMEWORK • SIGNED DURING THE SUMMIT OF CENTRAL AMERICAN PRESIDENTS IN GUATEMALA, OCTOBER, 1999. • AGREEMENT No. 1: • To adopt the Strategic Framework for Disaster Vulnerability Reduction in Central America that will be part of the development process in the region for next millenium... • This Strategic Framework, that is integral part of the present Declaration, will the basis for the preparation and development of regional plans related to Disaster Vulnerability Reduction; Integrated Management and Conservation of Water Resources; and Prevention and Control of Forest Wildfires.
PREANDINO: Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela • Andean Regional Program for Risk Prevention and Mitigation. • GENERAL OBJECTIVE: • To promote and support the formulation of national and sectorial policies for risk prevention and mitigation and the development of programs oriented to incorporate the concept of prevention in institutional organizations.
PREANDINO: ACTIVITIES • Permanent teams that work for disaster prevention at the regional level. • Mechanisms of regional cooperation. • Processes for the exchange of information and experiences among member countries. • Administrative mechanisms with financial resources to support a package of programs and projects. • Training of public officials for the preparation of projects. • Regional Master Plan for institutional strenghtening and regional policy. • National and regional projects for institutional strengthtening as well as for risk prevention and mitigation.
PREANDINO: STRATEGIC AREAS • Knowledge of natural phenomena and their effects. • Water, sanitation, and health. Agriculture, cattle raising, fishering, and land. • Transport and energy. Urban Development, housing and infrastructure. • Economy.
PREANDINO, RISK PREVENTION AND MITIGATION: GOALS • General National Plans for Risk Prevention and Mitigation for each country member. • National Sectorial Plans. • Regional Plan for horizontal cooperation on risk reduction. • Development of territorial plans in each country. • Incorporation of risk prevention in national, sectorial and territorial plans. • Consolidation of the institutional organization for risk prevention and mitigation at the national, sectorial and territorial level.
CERESIS: Centro Regional de Sismología para América del Sur (Regional Center for Seismology in South America) • International Organism created in 1966 by agreement between the government of Peru and the United Nations Education, Science and Culture Organization (UNESCO). • PURPOSE: To facilitate all kind of seismological studies and activities in the South American region as well as to act as a link between seismological institutions from the region and the international seismic centers. • HEADQUARTERS: Lima, Peru.
CERESIS: COUNTRY MEMBERS • At present, 11 countries are members: Argentina, Bolivia, Brasil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Perú, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay and Venezuela. • The agreement is open for the incorporation of other countries with a real interest in the South American Seismology.
CERESIS: SOME RECENT ACHIEVEMENTS • Project: “Seismic Reinforcement of Adobe Housing in the Andean Region”. • Updating of the Regional Seismic Catalog and preparation of the first Regional Map of Probalistic Seismic Hazard. • Organization and/or participation in Seminars and Simposia in the following themes: Seismic Risk, Seismic and Volcanic Hazards, Urban Seismic Microzonation, Earthquakes, Risk and Insurance, Seismic Prediction, Spatial Technology for Seismic and Geodynamic Process, Andean Tectonics, etc.
UNIDAD REGIONAL HUMANITARIA Y DE RESCATE DE AMERICA CENTRAL (CENTRAL AMERICAN HUMANITARIAN UNIT OF SEARCH AND RESCUE)
CFAC:La Conferencia de Fuerzas Armadas Centroamericanas (Conference of Armed Forces for Central America) • Country Members • The Presidents of Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras y Nicaragua, as Generals of the Central American Armed Forces, created on November 12, 1997, the Conference of Armed Forces for Central America “CFAC”
CFAC: Coordination and Objectives • It operates under the Central American Integration System (SICA). • It is important the coordination of activities with civil society because the C.A. Armed forces are integral part of society to promote peace, democracy and sustainable development in Central America. • CFAC was formed to contribute to security, development, and militar integration of the region; to estimulate a permanent and systematic effort for cooperation, coordination, and mutual support among the national armed forces; to perform collegiated studies of common interest; and to provide an optimal defense against threats to democracy, peace, and freedom.
Unidad Humanitaria y de Rescate (UHR-CFAC: Humanitarian Unit of Search and Rescue) • Created in 2000. • Mission: To carry out humanitarian operations of rescue in any Central American country affected by a natural or man-made disasters, with the purpose of saving and protecting human life and mitigate the effects of disasters.
Unidad Humanitaria y de Rescate (UHR-CFAC): Organization • A Commander from the Unity. • Minor unities of engineers and physicians. • A technical unity of search and rescue. • A support unity: logistics, militar police, communications, etc.
Unidad Humanitaria y de Rescate (UHR-CFAC): Recent Activities • During the “hemorragic dengue epidemic” occurred in El Salvador in october 2000, the UHR-CFAC units from Gautemala and Nicaragua were activated and jointly with the Salvadorian unit, worked to erradicate the transmission of dengue and mitigate the effects of this epidemic. • During the El Salvador earthquakes that occurred in January, 2001, the UHR-CFAC unit of Guatemala and Nicaragua collaborated with the El Salvador unit to mitigate the effects of these earthquakes.
Unidad Humanitaria y de Rescate (UHR-CFAC): Importance • The integration of the C.A. Armed Forces to the National Emergency Systems significantly improves the response of the countries in a national or regional emergency because UHR-CFAC has permanent human and material resources as well as a mechanism to react immediately to emergencies. • For Central America, the creation of UHR-CFAC to support affected communities by disasters in the region, is an element of human solidarity, cooperation and mutual trust that allows stability and promotes the integration process of Central American countries.
RIO GROUP • The Governments of Argentina, Brasil, Colombia, Mexico, Panama, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela adopted the Rio de Janeiro Declaration on 18 December 1986, to create a Permanent Mechanism for Political Consulting and Concertation - Grupo de Río.
RIO GROUP: New Members • In the framework of the IV Summit of the Rio Group, held in Caracas, Venezuela, October, 1990, Chile, Ecuador, Bolivia and Paraguay were incorporated, as well as a representative from the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) and Central America. Since 2000, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Dominican Republic were integrated as full members.
RIO GROUP: AD-HOC WORKING GROUP FOR TECHNICAL COOPERATION IN NATURAL DISASTER PREVENTION AND RESPONSE • This Working Group was created during the XIII Assembly held in Mexico, 28-29 May, 1999. • Proposed Actions • 1. Designing and adopting public national politics on disaster prevention, early warning, emergency, mitigation, re-habilitation and re-construction, by strengthtening or re-structuring the national systems. • 2. Implementation of policies, actions and projects on natural disaster prevention in a perspective that takes in consideration the national strategies for development such that the results must have social, economical and cultural benefits to country members. • 3. Preparation of a regional directory of especialized national organisms and institutions responsible for regional cooperation as well as an inventory of national capacities, including civil society, for prevention, early warning, emergency, mitigation, re-habilitation and re-construction.
RIO GROUP: AD-HOC WORKING GROUP FOR TECHNICAL COOPERATION IN NATURAL DISASTER PREVENTION AND RESPONSE: Proposed Actions • 4. Review of established regional structures to respond to natural disasters with the purpose of consolidating these structures as tools for designing common strategies. • 5. Analysis of the need to maintain a global framework for continuing coordinating the area of disaster vulnerability reduction within the United Nations Organization, privileging the perspective of risk reduction. • 6. Promote in universities and specialized institutions research related to the effects of natural phenomena with the potential of causing disasters; apply scientific and technical knowledge to natural disaster prevention and mitigation; promote regional information exchange. • 7. Training of officials and specialists in natural disaster prevention, early warning, emergency, mitigation, re-habilitation, and re-construction. • 8. Strengthening of programs related to social communication for vulnerabilty and risk reduction with the pupose of creating a culture of prevention.
ASSOCIATION OF CARIBBEAN STATES • The ACS has a membership that includes all the independent island states and all mainland countries bordering the Caribbean Sea, from Mexico in the northwest to French Guiana in the southeast. The Dutch speaking islands and the French Caribbean departments are also Associate Members. • There are 25 full Member States and 15 Observer Countries.
ACS: Special Committee on Natural Disasters Preparedness and Response. • The ACS has a regional agreement for co-operation in the management of natural disasters. Countries are working to develop co-operation projects in natural disaster preparedness and response. • This Special Committees meet at least once a year to make recommendations to the Ministerial Council.
GRUPO DE LOS TRES (GROUP OF THREE: COLOMBIA, MEXICO, VENEZUELA) • Their combined population is about 32% of the total in Latin America and the Caribbean. • The Agreement was signed January, 1995.
GRUPO DE ALTO NIVEL (GROUP OF HIGH LEVEL; GAN): Disaster Prevention and Response • This GAN was proposed in Caracas, Venezuela, 7-8 April 2001, with the purpose of exchanging information and experiences and establishing a coordination with national authorities and a regional mechanism to attend emergency situations in country members. The GAN was installed January, 2002.
G3-GAN: Disaster Prevention and Response: Future Actions. • a. To establish a network for exchanging information from Colombia, Mexico and Venezuela, with the purpose of integrating an inventory of experiences from natural disaster prevention, response and mitigation. • b. To promote the exchange of experiences and the training of human resources for prevention, early warning, emergency and mitigation. • c. To promote a culture of prevention. • d. To exchange experiences in networks of early warning systems. • e. To establish a data base including: a directory of civil protection institutions, disaster prevention and academics; an inventory of capacities and needs; hazards and risk maps; and a glosary of terms for civil protection and disaster prevention. • f. To exchange information about procedures for assigning financial resources to national disasters.
ORGANIZATION OF AMERICAN STATES (OAS): UNIT FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND ENVIRONMENT • Since 1983 the Unit, through its Natural Hazards project, has been providing technical support to reduce vulnerability to natural hazards and thus avoid disasters or mitigate their effects. Its activities include assistance with policy formulation, hazard and vulnerability assessments, training in disaster mitigation techniques, and formulation of mitigation measures for development of investment projects.
OAS: Inter-American Committee for Reduction of Natural Disasters (IACNDR) • MISSION: to strengthen OAS disaster planning and management activities to better deal with natural disasters affecting the Hemisphere. The working group involve active participation of multilateral, hemispheric and international agencies as well as major government and non-governmental organizations engaged in the disaster management. • The IACNDR is chaired by the General Secretary of the OAS and comprise the Chair of the Permanent Council, the Assistant Secretary General of the OAS, the President of the Inter American Development Bank (IDB), the General Director of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), the General Secretary of the Pan-American Institute of Geography and History (PAIGH), the General Director of the Inter-American Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture (IICA), and the Executive Secretary of the Inter American Council for Integral Development (CIDI).
OAS: Inter-American Committee for Natural Disasters Reduction (IACNDR) • The principal task of the IACNDR shall be to serve as the Organization's leading forum for discussion of issues related to natural disasters, in coordination with the competent national organizations; in this regard, the IACNDR shall provide the Permanent Council with strategic thinking, recommendations on initiatives related to natural disasters, and advice on methods of financing them, paying special attention to policies and programs designed to reduce the vulnerability of member states to natural disasters.
PLAN PUEBLA-PANAMA (PPP) • Supported by an Inter Institutional Group: Central American Bank for Economical Integration (BCIE); Inter American Development Bank (IDB); Economical Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (CEPAL). • The objetive is to maximize the human and ecological richness of the Mesoamerican region, within a framework of sustainable development that considers the cultural and ethnic diversity. For these reasons, an integral strategy for the region with a package of mesoamerican initiatives and projects are considered.
PPP: MESOAMERICAN INITIATIVE FOR DISASTER PREVENTION AND MITIGATION: TWO ACTIONS • 1. Adoption of disaster risk reduction as an element of the strategy for regional development which should be incorporated in all sectorial projects. Specifically, it is recommended that the formulation of projects should consider the vulnerability and impact of such projects to incorporate actions and resources to reduce present and to avoid future risks. • 2. Implementación of three projects: • Development of the insurance market for disasters. • Public conscienciation for disaster prevention. • Hidrometeorologic information for competitivity.
DISASTER CYCLE DISASTER EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS RE-HABILITATION PREVENTION RE-CONSTRUCTION
Coordination in Transnational and National Disasters Consist in the organized work to establish relationships of intra regional cooperation among the countries of a region and the international community in response to the principle of human solidarity in disaster situations.
SEVERAL ACTORS DURING NATIONAL AND TRANSNATIONAL DISASTERS Security Council of United Nations Agencies & Programs from United Nations Donor Countries Regional Organizations AFECTTED COUNTRY International Organizations NGOs Humanitarian Armed Forces
Mutual Assistance Mechanisms in Disaster Situations are Important • To establish the concrete action framework for coordination of the international humanitarian assistance and for horizontal cooperation among the countries from a determined region.
CONSIDERATIONS FOR INTERNATIONAL ASSISTANCE • Humanitarian Assistance Resources can be requested by the affected country bilaterally, to a group of regional countries or in the framework of international effort. • Humanitarian Assistance Operations are responsability of the affected country. • Nature and extension of Humanitarian operations are defined by the affected country. • In some cases there are Protocols that activate and coordinate the regional and international cooperation.
MECHANISMS OF REGIONAL COORDINATION IN CENTRAL AMERICA • Regional Manual of Chancelleries (completed and valided by C.A countries in 2001). • Regional Manual of Coordination in Disaster Situations (completed and validates by C.A. Countries in 2001).
MECHANISMS OF REGIONAL COORDINATION IN CENTRAL AMERICA OBJECTIVES To establish a transparent mechanism for joint action in disaster prevention, mitigation and response by means of a coordinated cooperation of Central American countries for humanitarian assistance. To Establish a rapid and efficient mechanism for natural disaster response in one or several affected countries.
Risk Management in Latin America and the Caribbean: Characteristics *Weak Planification. *Regulation Framework generally obsolete. *Responsible Institution not coordinated as System. Lack of adequate national mechanisms for disaster prevention and response