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Teaching Latin American History I As a Hybrid Course

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  1. Teaching Latin American History IAs a Hybrid Course William A. Paquette Professor of History MERLOT History Editor wpaquette@tcc.edu

  2. Why Teach Latin American History? • The Hispanic Population represented 14.8% of the United States Population in 2006 and remains the fastest growing minority group in the United States. • United States History textbooks are Anglo-centric with the focus on England and the English settlements in the United States. • The first European explorers in the 15th century to the United States were sent by Spain. • The vast majority of exploration and successful colonization in the Americas was done by Spain and Portugal in the 16th century. • The oldest city in the United States is St. Augustine, Florida; and, yet colonial America’s focus remains the English settlements. • The exploration and settlement of Florida, Texas, California, and the region between Texas and California was done by Spain and predates the westward expansion of the 19th century United States, but it is rarely emphasized in proper chronological context. • The need for the Spanish (and Portuguese) perspective on the exploration, colonization, and settlement of the Americas. • The Spanish encountered the Americas most advanced Pre-Columbian civilizations among the Aztec, Inca, and Maya peoples.

  3. Percent of Hispanics by Regionof the United States (2006) • In the Northeast 11.3% of the population is Hispanic. • In the Midwest 5.3 % of the population is Hispanic. • In the South 14.5 % of the population is Hispanic. • In the West 26.6 % of the population is Hispanic.

  4. Distribution of Hispanics by Place of Origin (2006) • 65.5 % are from Mexico (28.3 million). • 8.6 % are from Puerto Rico (3.7 million). • 8.2 % are from Central America (3.5 million). • 6.0 % are from South America (2.6 million) • 3.7 % are from Cuba (1.6 million). • 8.0 % are Hispanic from other locations (3.4 million).

  5. Why a Hybrid Course? • Students are engaged in active learning. • Blackboard becomes a tool permitting continuous discussion. • Permits the use of videos whose running time are longer than the normal classroom meeting. • Blackboard discussion board permits video content and commentary exchanges. • MERLOT websites enhance content learning, which demand longer time allotments. • Lectures permit introduction of key themes. • Lectures direct active learning activities. • Hybrid resources extend learning and offset limits of existing Latin American History textbooks. • Permits the incorporation of student experiences in Latin America. • Permits the incorporation of faculty study in Latin America.

  6. The Geography of Latin America • Map 1: Pre-Columbian Civilizations in Latin America. • Map 2: 1780 Viceroyalties in Latin America. • Map 3: Contemporary Latin America.

  7. Pre-Columbian Civilizations

  8. Viceroyalties of 1780 Latin America

  9. Latin America: Geography and Population Centers

  10. The Olmec Video

  11. The Mysterious Olmec People • Students watch The Olmec Art of Ancient Mexico produced by the National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC. • The origins of the Olmec people remains a mystery. • The National Gallery of Art’s exhibition on the Olmec brought Shang Dynasty scholars to Washington who concluded that funeral shards contained Shang Dynasty Chinese calligraphy. • Were the Olmec Chinese? • If the Olmec were Chinese how would this change the record on the history of the Americas? • The Olmec Art of Ancient Mexico engages the student in using art and archaeology to decipher clues to a culture’s origin. • Identifies the populations of Mesoamerica influenced by the Olmec.

  12. Central America:The Burden of Time Video

  13. The Maya of Central America • The Maya civilization was the only one in the Americas to develop a written language. • The Maya excelled in mathematics and astronomy. • Who were the Maya? • What were their religious beliefs? • How were they governed? • Did they engage in bloodletting? • What is their history timelines? • How accurate is the Mel Gibson film Apocalypto? • What sports did the Maya play? • Why did their civilization collapse before the arrival of the Spanish? • Why does the Maya calendar stop on December 23, 2012?

  14. Mesoamerica: Slides from Coba, Chichen Itza, and Tulum

  15. Three Maya City States:Coba, Chichen Itza, Tulum • Coba, Late Classic Period, 200 B.C.E. to 900 C.E. • Chichen Itza, Terminal and Early Post Classic Period, 800 to 1200 C.E. • Tulum, Late Post Classic Period, 1200-1530 C.E.

  16. Tulum & Chichen Itza Video

  17. The Mesoamerican BallgameMERLOT Assignment • Provides information about the Maya culture. • Provides information about Maya art. • Provides information about major Maya city-states: Chichen Itza, Uxmal, Palenque, Tikal, Yaxchilan, Bonampak, and Copan. • Explains the rules of the Maya ballgame. • Introduces user to diagrams of play, game songs, uniforms, artwork associated with the sport. • Discusses whether women could play. • Presents what happened to the team that lost. • The site self-tests by creating a animation that allows two teams to play the game and score points.

  18. Mesoamerican Ballgame

  19. Xcaret Mesoamerican Ballgames Video

  20. The Astronomy of Central and South AmericaMERLOT Assignment • The site introduces the user to the importance astronomy played in the Pre-Columbian civilizations of the Americas. • Users are able to calculate dates according to the Maya calendar system. • The site explains how the Maya calendar system was developed. • The site explains how the movement of heavenly bodies determined religious celebrations, war declarations, political decisions. • Introduces users to the Maya prophecy interpreted as the end of the world on December 23, 2012. • Explains how the reign dates of Maya rulers are calculated. • Compares Maya, Toltec, Aztec, Inca calendar systems.

  21. Astronomy of Central and South America

  22. Uxmal Video

  23. TeotihuacanAztec City of the Gods • Review slides from Mesoamerica CD on Teotihuacan • The Citadel • The Temple of Quetzalcoatl • The Avenue of the Dead • The Pyramid of the Sun • The Pyramid of the Moon • The Quetzal-Papalotl • Palace of the Jaguars • Temple of the Feathered Conches

  24. Mel Gibson’s Apocalypto Video

  25. Maya and Aztec ContributionsThe Accuracy of Apocalypto • The Maya writing system of glyphs for science and literature. • The Maya calendar system. • The legacy of the Maya. • Olmec, Maya, and Toltec influences on the Aztec. • The abandonment of Teotihuacan. • Tenochtitlan, the Aztec Capital.

  26. Pre-Columbian Civilizations of South America • Coastal Civilizations along the Andes. • The geography of South America. • The civilization known as Sipan. • The Inca civilization.

  27. Sipan Video

  28. The Lord of Sipan • Who were the Moche? • Who was buried in the Moche tombs? • Where did the Moche live? • What is learned from the archeological tomb evidence? • What was the level of civilization for the Moche?

  29. The Incas Video

  30. The Inca • What caused the Inca to thrive? • Where was the Incan Empire located? • How did the Inca communicate without a written language? • How was the Inca military organized? • How did the geography of the Andes affect the development of the Inca Empire? • How did a road system facilitate government functions? • Who were the Nazca? • What is the importance of Cuzco and Manchu Picchu? • What food crops did the Inca grow? • Describe the Inca system of terracing. • What does mummification reveal about Inca religious beliefs?

  31. The Geometry of the IncaMERLOT Assignment • Introduces user to the design of Manchu Picchu and how geometry was infused in this Inca city design plan. • Examines the mysterious lines of Nazca using mathematical rules of geometry. • Examines the layout of Cuzco by mathematical design and relates the design to other Inca cities. • Permits new interpretations about the origins of ancient cities by the study of mathematics.

  32. The Geometry of the Inca

  33. Los IncosMERLOT Assignment • The site explores the history of the Inca people. • The site describes the political organization of the Incan Empire. • The site examines the development of technology by the Inca and how this affected agriculture and warfare. • The site presents an understanding about agriculture, terraced farming, and the variety of foods grown, e.g. the many varieties of potatoes and tapiocas. • The site examines the critical function of roads and messengers in trying the Incan Empire into a unified state. • The site presents specific artistic contributions by the Inca. • The site presents specific scientific contributions by the Inca. • The site examines the extensive network of trade and commerce.

  34. Los Incos

  35. The Mission Video

  36. The Mission Video • What was the nature of the dispute between Spain and Portugal in the Amazon River region? • How did the Portuguese Jesuits treatment of the native population compare with the treatment of the indigenous population by the Spanish Jesuits? • What contributed to the indigenous populations acceptance of Roman Catholicism? • Which European country was awarded the land in dispute? • How did the Spanish treat the indigenous population? • What does the film reveal about Spanish colonial policies toward the indigenous population? • How did Roman Catholicism fail the indigenous peoples?

  37. The Buried Mirror SeriesVideo Series

  38. The Buried MirrorVideo Series • Part I: The Virgin and the Bull explores the symbolism of the two most misunderstood archetypes of Spanish culture: the Virgin Mary and the bullfight. • Part II: Conflict of the Gods retraces the culture and society of the Aztecs. • Part III: The Age of Gold examines how gold, silver, chocolate, tomatoes, the potato, and Roman Catholicism contributed to the destruction of the pre-Columbian world. • Part IV: The Price of Freedom follows the independence movements of Bolivar and San Martin in 19th century Latin America. • Part V: Unfinished Business focuses on the contemporary problems facing Latin America.

  39. European Voyages of ExplorationSpain and PortugalMERLOT Assignment • Examines the history of Spain and Portugal before exploration. • Discusses the political systems in place for both Spain and Portugal in the 15th century. • Describes the economy, people, and urban population of Spain and Portugal. • Explains why both Spain and Portugal became exploring nations. • Identifies the key figures in Spain and Portugal who promoted exploration and colonization. • Discusses the role of Spain and Portugal’s explorers, conquistadors, and Roman Catholic Church in the colonization of the Americas. • Explains when and why African slavery was introduced into the Americas. • Provides the opportunity to evaluate the Spanish and Portuguese legacy on the Americas indigenous populations.

  40. The European Voyages of Exploration

  41. The ConquistadorsMERLOT Assignment • Offers theories for the fall of the Aztec Empire. • Examines the role of Cortes as hero or villain. • Explains why the Incan Empire succumbed to the Spanish. • Traces the routes of Spanish and Portuguese explorers along the Amazon. • Examines the critical role of Cabeza de Vaca in protecting the rights of indigenous peoples. • Introduces theories about who were the first people to populate the Americas. • Introduces users to key figures associated with European exploration of the Americas. • Provides an effective timeline for the arrival and settlement of Europeans into the Americas.

  42. The ConquistadorsMERLOT Assignment

  43. 16th Century Spanish Census of the AmericasMERLOT Assignment • The site provides the 50 item questionnaire developed by Juan Lopez de Velasco to provide the King of Spain with an understanding of the lands Spain acquired in the Americas. • Questions ask the identification of native languages. • Questions ask which conquistadores took which regions. • Questions ask for the description of the geography. • Questions ask for the description of the plant and animal life. • Questions ask for the description of Spanish and indigenous villages. • Questions ask for the description of how homes are built. • Questions ask for the description of crops cultivated. • Questions ask for the identification of plants for medical use. • Questions ask about trade and commerce. • Questions ask about the location of churches and monasteries.

  44. 16th Century CensusMERLOT Assignment

  45. Builders of Image:Latin American Cultural Identity Video • Why is Latin America an important to understanding the history of the Americas and the United States? • How does Art shape the cultural identity of Latin America? • How does music shape the cultural identity of Latin America? • How did the art and music of pre-Columbian civilizations blend with the art of African slaves and Catholic Spain and Portugal?

  46. Builders of Image Video

  47. Summary of Learning Toolsfor a Hybrid Course • Slides • Videos • MERLOT assignments • Readings • Discussion Boards • Maps • Lectures • Faculty/student travel experiences

  48. The End William A. Paquette Professor of History MERLOT History Editor wpaquette@tcc.edu