Period One Final Exam Review Please use these with the idea that they are student generated and may be missing some information. Use they and ask yourself the following question, “Is all the information that I need here and correct?”
Leader of Young Italy(1) Mazzini started the organization “Young Italy” to which he gave a sort of devout, religious spirit, and which was to prove one of the most efficient agencies for the diffusion of the principles of freedom and the idea of union
2. Reason for end of Bismarck’s reign in Prussia Bismarck had succeeded in unifying Germany, but Prussia’s dominance created political discontent. After Kaiser William I died in 1888, his son Frederick III succeeded him, but died very quickly. William II, a proponent of militarism, became the new emperor. His belief in the absolute authority of the emperor, brought him into conflict with Bismarck. In 1890, Bismarck offered his resignation, and the kaiser accepted it.
#3- Definitions of Nationalism • na⋅tion⋅al⋅ism: • –noun • 1. national spirit or aspirations. • 2. devotion and loyalty to one's own nation. Nationalism was often expressed during World War I. Nations like Germany relied on nationalism to motivate their troops, and their citizens. Ironically, though, Germany lost World War I. A synonym for nationalism is patriotism.
4. Garibaldi • Leader of Southern Italian Nationalists • 1860- Turned over all Southern Italy conquests to Victor Emmanuel II to unify Italy
When the Germans were not united because religious, economical, social and political differences Bismarck took charge of policy in Germany. Bismarck made a campaign against the church by expelling Jesuits in 1872. Then he passed the may laws to destroy catholic influence. At the end of the 1800’s Germany became a major industrial power. Bismarck banned all socialist movements because he thought that any socialist party was out to change the government. This didn’t last long however. The ideas of divine right of kings clashed so Bismarck threatened to resign and William II accepted . 5.) Bismarck
6. Triple Entente • Consisted of France, Great Britain, Russia. • Formed in 1907 because of the Russians fear of growth in the German Army
7. Triple Alliance In 1873, Otto Von Bismarck created the Three Emperor’s League, uniting Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Russia. When this failed, Bismarck created the Triple Alliance in 1882, which included Italy, Germany, and Austria
The Allied Powers were the countries at war with the Central Powers during World War I. The main allies were the Russian Empire, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Italy, the Empire of Japan, and the United States. France, Russia, and the United Kingdom (including its empire) Entered war in 1914 ( Many other countries joined later in the war) 8. Allied Powers
9. Central Powers • Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire, and Bulgaria • Previously called Triple Alliance Central Powers in olive green
Dedicated groups of Italians and Germans worked to unify their territories into one nation in the 1800s. Nationalism became one of the most powerful forces at working Europe during the 1800s Nationalism-The desire for national independents that inspires other beings. 10.) Nationalism
The Schlieffen plan was a war plan, devised by the German army's chief of staff, Count Alfred von Schlieffen, which was put into effect by Germany in the First World War. It was designed to cope with the anticipated need for Germany to have to fight a war on two fronts, against France in the West and Russia in the East. The goal was to use the great bulk of Germany's armed forces against France in the early stages of the war, in the hope of defeating it quickly, and allowing German forces to then redeploy to meet the threat from the East. German strategists believed that the large but inefficient Russian army would be slow to mobilize, giving them a month or two in which to knock France out of the war before they would be forced to deal with the expected Russian attack 11. What Was The Schlieffen Plan?
12 : Reasons for US Entry • The United States originally pursued a policy of isolationism, avoiding conflict while trying to broker a peace. This resulted in increasedtensions with Berlin and London. When a German U-boat sank the British liner Lusitania in 1915, with 128Americans aboard, U.S. President Woodrow Wilson vowed, "America is too proud to fight"and demanded an end to attacks on passenger ships.
14. Date of American Entry Into WWI • Wilson went to Congress to request declaration of war. • Passed on April 2, 1917
27 nations gathered in Paris for the Paris peace conference. Leaders from the nations worked out 5 separate peace treaties. There was a large gap between Wilsons idealistic goals and the nationalistic goals of the French, Italian and British.( the big four) 15.) Peace Conference Following Armistice Day
16. Treaty of Versailles Participants • The treaty imposed on Germany by the Allied powers in 1920 after the end of World War I which demanded exorbitant reparations from the Germans.
17 : Provisions of treaty of Versailles • 1919 • Kept Germany under blockade until they signed • Made Germany pay enormous war reparations (payment) and give territory to the victors. • Unable to pay, so she barrowed money from U.S. • Caused enormous bitterness in Germany • Nazi used the bitterness to start their movement • The debt caused Germany’s Economy to fail
18. Assassination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand • June 28th 1914 Archduke Franz Ferdinand was shot dead in Sarajevo by an assassin from the black hand. This organization was against an alliance with Austria-Hungary.
19. WWI Timeline of Events • 6/28/1914: Archduke Ferdinand assassinated in Sarajevo/blame Serbia • 7/23/1914: Austria-Hungary gives Serbia ultimatum • 7/28/1914: Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia • 7/30/1914: Russia begins to mobilize troops • 8/1/1914: Germany declares war on Russia • 8/3/1914: Germany declares war on France • 8/4/1914: Britain declares war on Germany
There was heavy warfare, it was France and the UK against Germany, there were many casualties. The Western Front was situated between France and Germany. The Line was heavily static, mostly made up of opposing trenches. Huge artillery was used, which caused the majority of the causalities. Direct frontal assualts also were rendered obsolete because in the face of modern technology like the machine gun, they resulted in immense casualties. 20.) Characteristics Of The Western Front
21. Kellogg-Brian Pact agreement, signed Aug. 27, 1928 it failed to halt aggression in the 1930s was one of many international efforts to prevent another World War
22. Militarism • Militarism is defined as the glorification of war and the military. Prior to WWI, European countries compared militaries, and after 1870, all the powers except Great Britain introduced conscription, or the military draft.
23. Goal of Serbian Nationalist • The goal of the Serbian Nationalist was to keep Serbia an independent nation.
24. Reason for Russia’s Entry Into WWI • Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia and then Serbia asked Russia to create an alliance and step in to aid in their war effort.
Purpose of Propaganda(26) • Information, ideas, or rumors deliberately spread widely to help or harm a person, group, movement, institution, nation. • Propaganda ensured that the people only got to know what their governments wanted them to know. Britain's portrayal of Germany
# 28- War of Attrition • The war of attrition was a stand-still in the western front. • Trench warfare started. • WWI became a war of attrition because both sides started to use frequent attacksto wear down the other side.
29. Reason for Russia’s Removal from WWI • In March 1918, Russia signed the Treaty of Bresttitovisk in losing much territory and 1/3 of the population.
Lenin 30.) Leader Responsible For Russian Withdraw In WWI
31. Sinking of the Lusitania • Sunk by the German submarine U-20. • The United States was outraged and declared war on Germany!
32. Zimmerman Note :] • The Zimmerman Note was a telegram sent by German foreign minister Arthur Zimmerman to his ambassador to Mexico. The note promised that Germany would help Mexico regain American territory. This created much tension between Germany and the US.
# 33- The difference between Marxism and Russian Communism • Marxism- The society is ruled by the people. • Soviet Communism- A strong government (a dictatorship-Lenin) controls society. It is more socialist than communist.
34. Wilson’s 14 Points • A peace plan whose terms included international recognition of freedom of the seas and trade, limitation on arms, and end to all secret alliances. • Also called for just settlements of colonial claims
The Treaty of Versailles limited Germany’s power. Limited the arms of Germany. Germany lost all of her colonies. Reparations were to be paid by Germany to all the Allies for property damage and the cost of the Allies fighting the war. 35.) G.B and Frances Goal for Germany Following WWI
36. Declarations of war that began WWI A formal declaration issued by a national government indicating that a state of war exists between that nation and another. Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia, Russia on A-H, Germany on Russia, France on Germany, England on Germany
37. Reason Why Britain entered WW1 Because Russia, Britain and France had an alliance called the Triple Entente. When Austria-Hungary invaded Serbia following the assassination of the heir-apparent to the throne of Austria-Hungary (Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria) Russia joined in to help Serbia per a separate agreement. Germany, an ally of Austria-Hungary, then declared war on Russia and France and began to move troops through the neutral sovereign state of Belgium to attack France. In order to protect France from being captured, and in order to fulfill the obligations of its alliance, Britain entered the War.
38. Causes of WW1 • In Sarajevo, in 1914 the Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated by a Serb, Gavrilo Princip. • Disputes over territory, especially Morocco and the Agadir crisis • The rise of Serbia, trouble in Bosnia-Herzegovina (a region heavily populated with Serbs) • Austria-Hungary's suspicions of Serbia. • Turmoil in The Ottoman Empire, Balkan crisis • Imperialism • Nationalism • Expansionism • Intense competition & power struggles among the European nations.
39. Powder Keg of Europe • Ottoman Empire began to fall and Greece became independent in 1829 which led to the protest of the treaty.
Advancements in technology changed warfare forever. Submarines and airplanes moved combat from not only land but also to water and the air. Newer weapons were used such as poisonous gas, machine guns etc. This created more fear. 40.) Technological Advances
41. Characteristics of the Eastern Front • Flat • Moved around a lot while the Western front stayed still • Located in central-eastern Europe
44. Total War • Governments directed all people and resources to the war effort
Wars that don’t involve territorial defense should be avoided, legal barriers to control trade, immigration and emigration 45.) Isolationism
Causes of WWII(46) • The culmination of events that led to WWII are generally understood to be the 1939 invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany and the 1937 invasion of the Republic of China by the Empire of Japan. These military aggressions were the decisions made by authoritarian ruling elites in Germany and Japan. World War II started after these aggressive actions were met with an official declaration of war and armed resistance. Destroyer USS Shaw exploded after her forward magazine was detonated during the Attack on Pearl Harbor
47. Characteristics of Fascism Fascism is an aggressive, radical form of nationalism with an emphasis on the state rather than the individual.
49) Weakness of the Weimar Republic • Lasted in Germany from 1919 to 1933 • Made Germany a democracy • It had political instability and a lot of violence
Mussolini was the dictator of Italy and lead them into fascism. Ex. The march on Rome began Oct. 28, 1922 which made Mussolini get what he wanted by having an army sent to attack Italy if he was not made prime minister by the king and the king had no choice to accept this order. 50.) Rise Of Mussolini
52. Types of Governments in 1920s • Germany: fascist dictatorship under Hitler • Italy: fascist dictatorship under Mussolini • Japan: military ruled • USSR: a communist government was beginning to evolve under Stalin after the ousting of the Czar
53. Beginning of the Great Depression The Great Depression was triggered by a sudden, total collapse in the stock market. (Massive bank failures too) The stock market crash on October 29, 1929, also known as Black Tuesday. The Great Depression was a worldwide economic downturn starting in most places in 1929 and ending at different times in the 1930s or early 1940s for different countries (1941 for U.S). It was the largest and most important economic depression in the 20th century.
54. Soviet Communism Under Lenin • Vladimir IIyich Ulyanov, also known as Lenin and the Bolsheviks introduced war communism in 1918 • Under war communism the policy of nationalism was carried which brought state control under all major industries. • War communism implied that those who eat must work; the government required that everybody between the ages of 16 to 50 had to be working
Mao Zedong Jospeh Stalin Kim ll Sung 55.) Communist Leaders