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Photodetector on Silicon. Heng Yang. Outline. Introduction Si Photodetector in 770 ~ 850 nm Range IR Schottky barrier photodetector. Introduction. Essentially - p-n diode under the reverse bias Operate in the photoconductive mode Main usage - for the conversion of the optical signal

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Presentation Transcript
  • Introduction
  • Si Photodetector in 770 ~ 850 nm Range
  • IR Schottky barrier photodetector
  • Essentially - p-n diode under the reverse bias
  • Operate in the photoconductive mode
  • Main usage - for the conversion of the optical signal
  • works at 0.3 - 1.1 µm (peak responsivity at 0.8 µm).
si photodetector in 770 850 nm range
Si Photodetector in 770 ~ 850 nm Range
  • Optical communication range.
  • Absorption length for Si: 10 ~ 15 mm.
  • Requirements: High responsivity and Fast?
  • pn, pin and msm.


J = Jdrfit + Jdiff


Depletion region

interdigitated electrode
Interdigitated Electrode

Interdigitated electrodes are often used to increase the active region area while optimizing the electric fields in the carrier collection region.

Electrode can either be P+/N+ or just metal.

silicon lateral trench photodetector
Silicon Lateral Trench Photodetector

Finger space = 3.3 mm

Trench depth = 8 mm

Finger size = 0.35 mm

For l=845 nm,

BW=1.5 GHz, Responsivity = 0.47 A/W at 5V

Min Yang, Kern Rim, Dennis L. Rogers, et al., IEEE ELECTRON DEVICE LETTERS, VOL. 23, NO. 7, JULY 2002

msm photodetector by trench formation
MSM Photodetector by Trench Formation

For l = 790 nm, BW = 2.2 GHz, Responsivity = 0.14 A/W @ 5V

Jacob Y. L. Ho and K. S. Wong, IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, 8(8), 1996

resonant cavity enhanced high speed si photodetector
Resonant-Cavity-Enhanced High-Speed Si Photodetector

Three pair of quarter wavelength SiO2 and polysilicon at bottom (LPCVD).

Etched seed window.

SiO2 Side-wall to prevent defects at the edge of poly.


Two pairs of ZnSe-MgF on top (evaporated).

J. D. Schaub, R. Li, C. L. Schow, J. C. Campbell, G. W. Neudeck, and J. Denton


photodetector on soi
Photodetector on SOI
  • Thin active layer, and small finger space result in high speed.
  • Device with 100nm active layer and 100nm finger space was made. l=780 nm BW=140 GHz, responsivity=5.7 mA/W @ 5V.


Silicon dioxide

M. Y. Liu, E. Chen, and S. Y. Chou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65 (7), 15 August 1994

ir schottky barrier sb photodetector
IR Schottky Barrier (SB) Photodetector

300,000 PtSi/p-Si Schottky barrier IR detector focal plane arrays have been developed and used on Air Force B-52

ir schottky barrier photodetector
IR Schottky Barrier Photodetector

Internal Photoemission

Intrinsic Mechanism

  • High dark current, has to operate at low temperature (40 ~ 80 K).
  • Low quantum efficiency (QE).

High lC gives high QE. In order to expand the spectrum, efforts were made to decrease the barrier height.

fowler plot
Fowler Plot
  • The dark current is thermionic limited. It is given by:
  • A** is Richardson constant
  • By plotting J0/T2 vs 1/T, qfBcan be obtained from the slope.
ptsi p si schottky barrier
PtSi/p-Si Schottky Barrier
  • Second lowest barrier height (0.22eV). More than IrSi (0.16eV).
  • Low expense.
  • Compatible with standard IC process.
  • Stable.
  • Good uniformity over large area.
  • Good growth and etching selectivity.
ptsi schottky barrier infrared focal plane arrays
PtSi Schottky-Barrier Infrared Focal Plane Arrays

Masafumi Kimata, Tatsuo Ozaki, Natsuro Tsubouchi and Sho Ito, Proceeding of SPIE, 1998

sbd with a shallow p layer
SBD with a shallow P+ layer
  • PtSi/p-Si, qFB = 0.22 eV, lc = 5.6 mm. (M. Kimata, M. Denda et. al, Inter. J. of Infrared and millimeter waves, 6(10), 1985)
  • PtSi/p+ (100 ~ 300 nm)/p-Si, qFB < 0.22 eV, with hole tunneling, lc = 7 mm. (CY Wei, W. Trantraporn, W. Katz and G. Smith, 93, 1981)
  • PtSi/p+ (1nm)/p-Si, qFB = 0.057 eV, lc = 22 mm. (TL Lin, JS Park et. al, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(25), 1993)

TL Lin, JS Park et al.

Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(25), 1993

porous silicon ps schottky barrier detector
Porous Silicon (PS) Schottky Barrier Detector
  • The modification was made just to make the PtSi on top of the PS in stead of Si. Pt was deposited by electrodeposition
  • The cut-off wavelength of 7 mm was reported.
  • QE ~ 10% @ 7 mm
  • Random orientation of the junctions increase the number of holes that can be injected into Si.

Farshid Raissi and Mansoor Mohtashami Far, IEEE Sensors Journal, 2 (5) 2002