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Intrusive Academic Advising: An Effective Strategy to Increase Student Success Tom Brown Innovative Educators Webinar June 22, 2010 www.tbrownassociates.com tom@tbrownassociates.com.

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slide1

Intrusive Academic Advising:An Effective Strategy to Increase Student SuccessTom BrownInnovative Educators WebinarJune 22, 2010www.tbrownassociates.comtom@tbrownassociates.com

slide2

Intrusive Academic Advising1. What is it?2. Why consider using it?3. What does it involve?4. Is it effective?5. Can it work for your students, your work, and your campus?

the context for today s workshop a continued focus on student learning engagement and success
The context for today’s workshop:A continued focus on student learning, engagement and success.
shift in emphasis

Shift in emphasis….

1970s and 80s Access

1980s and 90s Retention

Today Success Alfredo de los Santos

slide5

The core question is not about basic “access” to higher education…It is not about persistence…It is about completion of academic credentials—the culmination of opportunity, guidance, choice, effort and commitment.Paths to Degree Completion, 2/14/2006

a continuing shift

A continuing shift….

Teaching

Learning

Student Success

Vincent Tinto, Syracuse University, 2007

slide8

Higher retention rates matter to policy makers, including federal and state legislators, who have a concern about low college graduation rates….USA Today, 10/12/05

national graduation rates

National Graduation* Rates

nMean%

Two-year public 442 29.3

Four-year public MA 166 38.8

Four-year public PhD 173 48.6

Four-year private MA 348 55.4

Four-year private PhD 173 63.4

Overall 1661 46.2

Completion in 3 years for Associates; 5 years for BA/BS *Source: ACT Institutional Data File, 2008

www.act.org

retention practices with greatest impact
Retention practices with greatest impact

1. First-year programs

2. Advising interventions for specific student populations

3. Learning supportHabley & McClanahan, WWISR 2004

retention practice with greatest impact
Retention practice with greatest impact

Two-year colleges:

Mandatory Assessment

Habley & McClanahan, WWISR 2004

slide12

Next to the quality of instruction, academic advising is consistently the next most important area of the college experience to students.Five Year Trend Study- National Student Satisfaction Report Noel Levitz 2006

national student satisfaction report 2009 four year private institutions
National Student Satisfaction Report 2009Four-year Private Institutions
  • Instructional effectiveness (6.34)
  • Academic advising (6.30)
  • Safety and security (6.18)
  • Student centeredness (6.18)
  • Registration effectiveness (6.18)
  • Recruitment and financial aid (6.18)
  • Campus climate (6.16)
  • Concern for the individual (6.16)
  • Campus support services (6.04)
national student satisfaction report 2009 four year public institutions
National Student Satisfaction Report 2009Four-year Public Institutions
  • Academic advising (6.35)
  • Instructional effectiveness (6.33)
  • Safety and security (6.32)
  • Registration effectiveness (6.21)
  • Recruitment and financial aid (6.16)
  • Concern for the individual (6.13)
  • Campus climate (6.12)
  • Student centeredness (6.11)
  • Campus support services (6.07)
community college student priorities 2009
Community CollegeStudent Priorities 2009
  • Instructional effectiveness 6.18
  • Registration effectiveness 6.16
  • Academic Advising/Counseling 6.14
  • Concern for the individual 6.09
  • Academic services 6.05
  • Admissions and financial aid 6.03
  • Safety and security 6.02
  • Student centeredness 5.98
  • Campus climate 5.98
  • Service excellence 5.64
  • Campus Support Services 5.48
national adult student priorities report noel levitz 2008
National Adult Student Priorities Report Noel-Levitz, 2008.
  • Instructional effectiveness
  • Academic Advising/Counseling
  • Registration Effectiveness
  • Campus Climate
  • Service excellence
triad for student success
TRIAD FOR STUDENT SUCCESS

ComprehensiveSupportPrograms

High Quality Teaching

Developmental Academic Advising

slide19

Research has shown that advising improves student retention rates through the establishment of relationships with faculty or staff members who help students to clarify their academic and career goals. Noel Levitz 2006

slide20

Quality interaction with faculty seems to be more important that any other single college factor in determining minority student persistence.Levin and Levin, 1991

slide21

Academic advisors have long known what presidents and policy makers are learning: there is a wealth of important research which has found a significant correlation between quality academic advising, student satisfaction, and enhanced persistence.John Gardner & Tom Kerr, 1995

slide22

Making the Most of CollegeGood advising may be the single most underestimated characteristic of a successful college experience…. Richard Light, 2001

slide23

For community college students, frequent interaction with faculty and advisers outside of class all had a positive impact on preventing students from dropping out….Regina Deil Amen Chronicle of Higher Education 8/17/05

slide24
There is a relationship between advising and retention. (n=1594)Agree/strongly agree 86%Disagree 4% Brown Survey, 2001-2008
slide25

Academic advising is the onlystructured activity on campus in which all students have the opportunity for on-going one-to-one interaction with a concerned representative of the institution.Wes Habley, ACT

slide26

Redefining academic advising: From an event to a process that is integrally linked to student engagement and learning. Much more than a service that supports registration….

how does xyz tech define advising

How does XYZ Tech define advising?

The advising staff offers support to all XYZ Tech students in the selection of the liberal education courses required for their degrees.

XYZ Tech Undergraduate Bulletin 2008 (pg. 96)

how does local cc define advising

How does Local CC define advising?

Students meet with academic advisors to choose a major, select courses, review degree requirements….Local CC 2007-2008 Academic Bulletin (Pg. 21)

slide29

Academic Advising is… a systematic process based on a close advisor student relationship intended to aid students in achieving their personal, educational, and career goals….focuses on helping students to acquire skills and attitudes that promote their intellectual and personal development. assists students to make full use of campus and community resources in the process.Developmental Academic Advising Winston, Miller, Ender, Grites & Associates. 1984

slide30
Is academic advising on your campus a process?If not, why? How might this be changed?What can you do to help make this happen?
slide32

Academic

Advising

Counseling

Registration

Financial

Aid

Orientation

Career

Center

TRIO/SSS

MulticulturalAffairs

Faculty

Assessment

Learning

Center

slide33

Retention

Counseling

Registration

Financial

Aid

Orientation

Career

Center

Academic

Advising

TRIO/SSS

MulticulturalAffairs

Faculty

Assessment

Learning

Center

The Hub of the Campus Wheel

W. Habley

slide34
Attributes of an environment that supports student success:Intentional Structured ProactiveTinto, 2007
slide35

What happens to students after they enroll frequently has a more powerful impact on whether they stay and achieve their goals or leave.Tinto 1987, 1993

why do students leave college

Why do students leave college?

Isolation

Inability to connect with significant members of the campus community….

slide37

The more interaction students have with faculty and staff, the more likely they are to learn effectively and persist toward achievement of their educational goals.

transforming students through validation

Transforming Students Through Validation

Success appears to be contingent on whether faculty and staff can validate students in an academic or interpersonal way.

Rendon, 1994

why do students leave college39

Why do students leave college?

Incongruence

What I experienced is not what I expected.

academic advisors can mediate the gap between student experiences and their expectations habley
Academic advisors can mediate the gap between student experiences and their expectations. Habley
slide41

Some Institutions seem to be more effective than others in helping students from a wide range of abilities and backgrounds succeed… Pascarelli & Terenzini, 2005

college being more proactive college move to organize retention efforts

College being more proactive…“College Move to Organize Retention Efforts”*

More students participating in orientation

70% collect midyear grades for first-year students

Even more flag courses with high rates of Ds, Fs, and withdrawals

Half offer some form of Supplemental Instruction

80% require first-year students to meet with an advisor at least once a term

*Chronicle of Higher Education 10/25/2009

intrusive academic advising

Intrusive Academic Advising

What is intrusive academic advising??

origins of intrusive advising

Origins of Intrusive Advising

“Reduction of Attrition Through Intrusive Advising”

Robert Glennen & Dan Baxley

NASPA Journal, v22 n3 p10-14 Win 1985

slide50

The intrusive model of advising is action-oriented in involving and motivating students to seek help when needed. Utilizing the good qualities of prescriptive advising (expertise, awareness of student needs, structured programs) and of developmental advising (relationship to a student's total needs), intrusive advising is a direct response to an identified academic crisis with a specific program of action…. Earl, 1987

the theoretical framework of intrusive advising is based on three postulates

The theoretical framework of intrusive advising is based on three postulates:

Advisors can be trained to identify students who need and can benefit from this kind of intervention.

Students DO respond to direct contact in which a problem in their academic life is identified and a resource or assistance is offered.

the theoretical framework of intrusive advising is based on three postulates52

The theoretical framework of intrusive advising is based on three postulates:

Deficiencies in the necessary "fit" of a student to his/her academic environment are treatable.

Students can be taught and can learn the skills needed to be successful.

guiding principles of intrusive advising

Guiding Principles of Intrusive Advising:

Academic and social integration are keys to persistence.

Motivation is not the cause but rather the result of intrusive intervention activities.

Sharon Holmes, 2000

there are some distinct advantages of an intrusive mode of advising

There are some distinct advantages of an intrusive mode of advising.

A direct contact is established with an advisor who deals openly with the student's academic situation when the student has maximum motivation to accept assistance.

Earl, 1987

slide55

The Intrusive Advising model is valuable because it assumes that some students will not take the initiative in resolving academic concerns, therefore, assigned counselors operate intrusively.

Holmes, 2000

at risk students have difficulty

At-risk students have difficulty:

Recognizing that a problem exists

Asking for help once they realize that they have a problem

Asking for help in time for the assistance to be of benefit Levin & Levin, 1991

advantages of intrusive advising

Advantages of intrusive advising

the student is intrusively placed in a position where s/he must do academic planning within the parameters of self-motivation.

structured advising programs are enhanced by a student's involvement in contract modules.

slide58

Intrusive advising has been shown to improve the effectiveness of advising, enhance student academic skills and increase retention. Earl, 1987

slide59
Studies have shown that probationary students have higher GPAs when intrusive advising is used. Heisserer & Parette, 2002
slide60

There is compelling evidence regarding the importance students place on the value of intrusive advising relationships in the context of their ability to persist. DeAnna Burt, 2009

intrusive advising61

Intrusive Advising

Intrusive advising does not mean “hand holding” or parenting. Rather, it does mean active concern and a willingness to assist students to explore programs and services to improve their skills and motivate them to persist toward their goals.

intrusive advising62

Intrusive Advising

Intrusive advising means taking a personal interest in students and approaching them with an open caring attitude.

A personal relationship with a concerned member of the campus community can reduce the psychological distance that hinders academic integration.

slide63

The intrusive model is proactive and seeks to address problems as they emerge, rather than being reactive. Essentially, advisors reach out to help students instead of waiting for students to seek help. University of Minnesota General College

intrusive advising strategies

Intrusive Advising Strategies

Assessment and placement

Mandated orientation programs

Required advising meetings

Learning communities

First-year seminar courses

Early alert systems

required advising meetings

Required Advising Meetings

Structured content

What should be discussed and when?

What would be discussed at a first advising meeting?

At a meeting three weeks into the first term?

At a meeting following midterms?

Prior to registration for the following term?

At the first meeting of the following term?

early alert systems

Early alert systems

Identify students who are having difficulty and also provide recommended sources of assistance.

These were originally sent to faculty through campus mail, but they are increasingly available in web-based formats.

intrusive advising strategies68

Intrusive Advising Strategies

Midterm grades/progress reports

Supplemental Instruction

Peer Support/Study groups

Clear statements of responsibilities

Advising “contracts”

Mentor/Peer mentor programs

Others??

mentor program

Mentor Program

The value of the mentoring relationship seems to be long lasting. “We have found that our mentees from two or three semesters ago are still our students. We still hear from them. It has worked beautifully….”

Gale Lammers, Phillips CC (Ark.)

fye peer mentors

FYE Peer Mentors

Attend FYE classes

Monitor student progress

Provide study skills assistance

Organize study groups

Connects to campus resources

Support faculty to motivate students toward academic goals

slide71

Midterm Semester Evaluations (MSEs) target low SES and first year students and is one of the most successful initiatives at CSU San Marcos pertaining to identifying and assisting at-risk students before they find themselves in difficulty. Parisa Soltani, 2007

slide72

Supplemental Instruction

Professor

Supplemental Instruction Study Groups

A

B

C

D

Tutor A

Tutor B

Tutor C

Tutor D

Course:

Chemistry I

http://web2.umkc.edu/cad/SI/

your turn to teach

Your turn to teach…

What are some examples of activities on your campus that could be called intrusive or active outreach advising?

why intrusive advising works

Why Intrusive Advising Works:

Students who know that an advisor will contact them are motivated to keep up with their work. (Heisserer & Parette, 2002)

Intrusive advising helps students make connections to campus services.

Referrals to sources of assistance informs students that some one cares about them.

Earl, 1998; Backus, 1989; Holmes, 2000

student responsibilities ohio university

Student ResponsibilitiesOhio University

Contact your advisor and every instructor regularly.

Read email and Blackboard postings carefully and follow instructions.

Utilize instructor and advisor office hours.

Make appointments in advance and keep them.

Follow-up on advice and referrals

slide77

In loco parentis has been replaced by the philosophy that students are responsible for their own survival and relate to their experiences in the same way that other adults relate to their environments…

slide78

While functioning relatively well for [many] services, it is not functioning well in the campus environment for the delivery of academic assistance services. Earl, 1987

changing environment changing students 1 st year 2 nd year 3 rd year 4 th 5 th 6 th year

Need for Information

Changing Environment & Changing Students1st Year 2nd Year 3rd Year 4th, 5th, 6th Year

Changing Needs for Advising

Need for Consultation

Creamer, 2000

changing environment changing students 1 st year 2 nd year 3 rd year 4 th 5 th 6 th year81

Need for Information

Changing Environment & Changing Students1st Year 2nd Year 3rd Year 4th, 5th, 6th Year

Changing Needs for Advising

Need for Consultation

Moving In Moving Through Moving On

Creamer, 2000; Lynch, 1989

changing environment changing students 1 st year 2 nd year 3 rd year 4 th 5 th 6 th year82

Need for Information

Changing Environment & Changing Students1st Year 2nd Year 3rd Year 4th, 5th, 6th Year

Changing Needs for Advising

Need for Consultation

Moving In Moving Through Moving On

I I/S I/S S/I S

I = Faculty, advisors, etc.

S = Student

Lynch, 1989;Creamer, 2000; Brown, 2006

changing environment changing students 1 st year 2 nd year 3 rd year 4 th 5 th 6 th year83

Need for Information

Changing Environment & Changing Students1st Year 2nd Year 3rd Year 4th, 5th, 6th Year

Changing Needs for Advising

Need for Consultation

Moving In Moving Through Moving On

I I/S I/S S/I S

I = Faculty, advisors, etc.

S = Student

PRESCRIPTIVE DEVELOPMENTAL

Lynch, 1989;Brown& Rivas, 1994; Creamer, 2000; Brown, 2006

the question students should seek to answer through advising

The question students should seek to answer through advising...

NOT….

“What courses do I need to take?”

the questions students should seek to answer through advising

The questions students should seek to answer through advising...

“How do I want to live my life?”

“What can I do in college to help move me toward this vision of my future?”

slide86
Big enough questions…What is it you plan to dowith your one wild and precious life?The Summer Day Mary Oliver
hierarchy of advising
HIERARCHY OF ADVISING

Life goals, values, abilities, interests, limitations.

Career/vocational opportunities

Academic Programs/Field of Study

Course selection

Class schedulingTerry O’Bannion, 1972, 1994

student expectation of advisors
Student Expectation of Advisors
  • Availability/Accessibility
  • Knowledge
  • Care and Concern
why do students leave college89

Why do students leave college?

Isolation

Inability to connect with significant members of the campus community….

caring
Caring…
  • Early and frequent contact
  • Comprehensive orientation
  • Intrusive advising

Buyer & Connolly, 2006

cultivating intrusive proactive academic advising

Cultivating Intrusive/Proactive Academic Advising

Take photos of students and post in their advising folders.

Follow up personally on early alerts.

Postcard, email, and/or text reminders of important deadlines, meetings, etc.

Attend co-curricular activities.

Explore opportunities for residence hall advising.

Jennifer Varney, 2007

slide93
Adult students often “recycle” through developmental issues faced by younger students.Chickering and Reisser, 1993
active outreach strategies

Active Outreach Strategies

Assign an adult student advocate to identify issues, mediate problems, etc.

Facilitate formation of support groups and peer mentoring

Interactive on-line advising system (Santa Fe CC, Florida)

Proactive advising system (Friends University, KS)

Others ??

slide95

40% of first-generation students leave college without a degree….they are more likely to come from low income families. US Department of Education, 2005

active outreach strategies96

Active Outreach Strategies

First-year programs: summer bridge, orientation programs, FYE courses, Freshman Interest groups (FIGs)

Learning communities

Integrated courses clusters (e.g., Psych course linked with English and tutoring or SI)

Others?

slide97

Students with disabilities are far less likely to finish high school or college, far more likely to be unemployed, and, when they find work, to be paid less than minimum wage…. Johnson, 2006

active outreach strategies98

Active Outreach Strategies

Encourage full participation

Encourage appropriate disclosure

Connect with campus and community resources

Be willing to act as an advocate.

Others?

slide99
Undecided StudentsUndecidedness has been linked to low achievement, lack of involvement and attrition. Peterson & McDonough
undecided but don t know it
13% of

first-year students expect to change their major.

12.6% of first-year students expect to change their career choice. 2008 CIRP Survey

Undecided but don’t know it…
you are not alone

You are not alone…

Sources of Support

Academic advisor

Faculty and department chairs

Career Services

Counseling Center

Internship,s work experience, job shadowing

an advising model for undecided students peggy king 2008

An Advising Model for Undecided StudentsPeggy King, 2008

Help students analyze and understand their situation.

Support them to develop a plan for exploration

Refer students to key resources (e.g., Career Services, academic departments, faculty, internships)

an advising model for undecided students peggy king 2008103

An Advising Model for Undecided StudentsPeggy King, 2008

Assist students to develop action plans

Support students while they are engaged in exploration and decision making.

Follow-up

slide104
LGBT Students31% of LGBT students left college for a semester or longer and 33% dropped out altogether (Hardesty, 1994)
active outreach strategies105

Active Outreach Strategies

First-year Transition Programs

Mentoring

Creating “Safe Zones” and developing Allies

Links to Career Development

Jennifer Joslin, 2007

slide106

Multicultural StudentsStudents of color base their decisions on whether or not to persist on the quality of their interactions with faculty….Cabrera, Terenzini, et. al. Journal of Higher Education, 1999

slide107

Some minority students and first-year students have not established behavioral patterns that would motivate them to seek assistance

Sharon Holmes, 2000

active outreach strategies108

Active Outreach Strategies

Peer mentoring programs

Faculty and staff mentor programs

Active outreach to connect with campus and community resources

Intrusive academic advising program

slide109

First-year StudentsMany students who leave college do so as the result of experiences they have during the first six weeks. Astin, Tinto, Crockett

national drop out rates freshman to sophomore year

National Drop Out RatesFreshman to Sophomore Year

nMean%

Two-year public 824 46.3

Four-year public MA 220 30.0

Four-year public PhD 227 27.1

Four-year private MA 502 27.7

Four-year private PhD 220 19.6 Overall 2582 32.7 *Source: ACT Institutional Data File, 2008

www.act.org

slide111

Students need the support of advising programs and academic advisors as they make three critical transitions:

Moving into college

Moving through college

Moving on from college

slide112

Students need the support of advising programs and academic advisors as they make three critical transitions:

Moving into college

Moving through college

Moving on from college

slide113

Helping students move into college is far and away the most important task for academic advisors. Professor Arthur Chickering, 1994

slide114

Students usually have a realistic understanding about the demands of academic work and what is required to be successful in their classes. (n = 1587)Strongly agree/agree 13%Disagree/strongly disagree 69%Brown Survey of Faculty, 2001-2008

do students understand what is required to be successful in college

Do students understand what is required to be successful in college?

Most of them don’t have a clue! They see college work as an extension of high school, and for most of them high school involved little effort.BrownAdvisingSurvey, 2001-2008

58 reported a a as their average high school grade

58% reported A/A- as their average high school grade.

93% earned a B average or higher.

65% expect to earn at least a B average in college.

2008 CIRP Survey Public Universities

do students understand what is required to be successful

Do students understand what is required to be “successful”?

How many hours did you study during a typical week in your last year of high school?

36% More than 10 hours

51% Five hours or less

44% Less than two hours a week!!CIRP Freshmen Survey Public Universities, 2008

slide118

In 1961, the average student spent 40 hours a week engaged in her/his studies—attending class and studying. By 2003, this had declined by nearly one-third…Philip Babcock & Mindy Marks National Bureau of Economic Research Chronicle of Higher Education 6/21/2010 27 hours weekly.

slide119

Academic services may be available, but if we wait for students to come for assistance, attrition may be the result. Students inexperienced in the ways of college—and certainly most first-year students—need to be reached out to with intrusive programs and services.

Levitz and Noel, 1989(!!)

factors contributing to academic difficulty

Factors contributing to academic difficulty

Peer culture

Academic major/program

Lack of interaction with faculty

Organization and time management

Inadequate investment of time

Self-efficacy and perceived lack of control

Pascarelli & Terenzini, 2005

helping students get back on track

Helping students get back on track

Assess GPA deficit

Help develop a plan to return to good standing--concrete, tangible, doable

Reflect on factors contributing to unsuccessful academic performance

Accept responsibility for choices

Examine and [re]assess academic, career, and personal goals

Acknowledge that the past does not necessarily equal the future

programs vary widely

Programs vary widely…

Required weekly workshops

Regular meetings with advisor and/or mentor

Group activities/Study groups

Tutorial Services

Supplemental Instruction

Contracts for Academic Success

probation contracts examples

PROBATION CONTRACTSExamples

Abiline Christian University

http://www.acu.edu/academics/cas/documents/Probation_Contract.pdf

Morehead State University

http://www.moreheadstate.edu/files/units/acs/probation/Academic_Probation_Contract_Fall_2009.pdf

University of North Carolina Chapel Hill

http://studentsuccess.unc.edu/docs/updated%20contract.pdf

Rio Hondo Community College

http://www.oncourseworkshop.com/Getting%20On%20Course008.htm

active outreach to students
Active outreach to students

Advisors should be available

at times when,

and in places where,

students make educational decisions

Habley

why reach out
Why reach out?

An academic advisor is unlike any role model the new student has encountered.

Students receive advice from all sorts of people and much of that advice is inaccurate, incomplete, or inappropriately value laden.

why reach out127
Why reach out?

The use of technology may supplant rather than support the advising process.

The first six weeks of transition are critical to the institution’s retention efforts.

It is easier to anticipate a problem than it is to solve one.

slide128

Academic advising is the onlystructured activity on campus in which all students have the opportunity for on-going one-to-one interaction with a concerned representative of the institution.Wes Habley, ACT

slide129

We should not assume that effective advisors will simply emerge without structured pre-service and in-service professional development programs.

slide130

Many key competencies are developed after educators arrive on campus. Therefore, colleges must assume the responsibility for teaching and developing their own educators to enhance student learning inside and outside the classroom by providing professional development programs. Brown & Ward, 2007

slide131

Faculty members are left to sink or swim when it comes to effective student advising—they are blamed for something they lack the professional training to do.Dr. Yolanda Moses President, AAHEFaculty Advising Examined, 2003

slide132

When I first began to advise, I had adequate preparation and training. (n=1570)Strongly agree/agree 30%Disagree/strongly disagree 53%Brown Survey of Faculty, 2001-2008

strategy for success
Strategy for Success

Professional development for faculty in pedagogies and practices aimed at improving retention and success…. Bunker Hill CC

slide134

Derek Bok stresses the importance of ensuring that adjunct faculty are also properly trained in order for the university to attain its educational goals…Our Underachieving Colleges Derek Bok, 2006

slide137

Intrusive Academic Advising:An Effective Strategy to Increase Student SuccessTom BrownInnovative Educators WebinarJune 22. 2010www.tbrownassociates.comtom@tbrownassociates.com