DO NOW • WHY IS EMBALMING OR PRESERVING THE BODY OFTEN A PART OF OUR RITUALS DURING DEATH AND FUNERALS? • WHY IS IT SO IMPORTANT TO THE EGYPTIANS? • LOOK IN YOUR TEXTBOOKS ON PAGES 48-49 UNDER THE SECTION “THE PYRAMIDS”
Chapter 3 India and China
1. India subcontinent 1. Is composed of a number of core regions including mountain ranges, river valleys, a dry interior plateau, and fertile coastal plains Section 1: Early Civilization in India
2. Himalaya 3. Ganges River 4. Deccan 2. The highest mountain ranges in the world (Mt. Everest) 3. South of the Himalaya 4. A plateau that extends from the Ganges Valley to the southern tip of India In the far north are the Himalaya. Directly south of the Himalaya is the rich valley of the Ganges River, one of the chief regions of Indian culture. To the west is the Indus River valley, a relatively dry plateau that forms the backbone of the modern state of Pakistan. South of India’s two major river valleys—the valleys of the Ganges and the and the Indus lies the Deccan plateau. The interior of the plateau is relatively hilly and dry. India’s eastern and western coasts are lush plains. These plains have historically been among the most densely populated regions of India.
The primary feature of India’s climate is the monsoon. 5. monsoon 5. a seasonal wind pattern in southern Asia. One monsoon blows warm, moist air from the southwest during the summer and another blows cold, dry air from the northeast during the winter. The Southwest monsoon brings heavy rains, and throughout history Indian farmers have depended on these rains to grow their crops. If the rain comes early or late, or too much or too little rain falls, crops are destroyed and thousands starve.
6. Indus River 7. Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro 6. where India’s civilization began; flooded every year 7. two major cities which contained broad streets, courtyards, advanced drainage systems and street level garbage bins At its height, both cities had about 35,000 to 40,000 inhabitants. These cities were protected by city walls, their homes could reach up to three stories; they contained broad streets that ran in a north-south direction and were crossed by smaller east-west roads.
8. theocracy 9. economy 8. rulers who based their power on divine assistance 9. based primarily on farming Indus River flooded every year providing rich soil for the growing of wheat, barely, and peas, the chief crops India’s Government and Economy:Religion and political power were closely linked. The fact that the royal palace and the holy temple were combined in the citadel, or fortress, at Harappa shows this close connection. Priests at court probably prayed to a god or goddesses of fertility to guarantee the annual harvest.
10. trade 10. Indus valley traded with city-states of Mesopotamia The Indus valley civilization also carried on extensive trade with city-states in Mesopotamia. Textiles and food were imported from the Sumerian city-states in exchange for copper, lumber, precious stones, cotton, and various types of luxury goods. Much of this trade was carried by ship via the Persian Gulf, although some undoubtedly went by land.
DO NOW • EXPLAIN THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE TIGRIS AND EUPHRATES IN COMPARISON TO THE NILE RIVER IN COMPARISON TO THE INDUS RIVER. • EXPLAIN THE GEOGRAPHICAL FEATURES OF THE RIVERS AS IT RELATES TO FARMING (SYSTEMATIC AGRICULTURE) • WHICH CIVILIZATIONS AROSE NEAR THESE RIVERS?
DO NOW • EVERY EARLY CIVILIZATION’S ECONOMY IS BASED PRIMARILY ON WHAT?????????? • EXPLAIN WHY THIS IS SO.
11. Aryans 12. Hindu Kush 11. Group of nomadic people who settled in the plains of northern India 12. mountain range in between the Amu Darya river and Indus river Eventually, floods, an earthquake, changes in climate, and even a change in the course of the Indus River weakened the once flourishing civilization in the Indus River Valley. Around 1500 B.C., a group of nomadic peoples known as the Aryans moved south across the Hindu Kush mountain range into the plains of northern India. The Aryans were not a race or ethnic group. They were part of a larger group of people historians refer to as the Indo-Europeans.
13. Sanskrit 14. rajas 13. Language of the Aryan group 14. Aryan leaders (princes) Note: at this time India was a world of small kingdoms Organized in groups, the Aryans were a pastoral people with a strong warrior tradition. After settling in India, the Aryans gave up the pastoral life for regular farming. Like most nomadic peoples, the Aryans had no written language. The Aryans developed their first writing system, based on their language, Sanskirt, by 1000 B.C. Having a written language enabled them to begin writing down the legends and religious chants and rituals that had been passed down orally from earlier generations.
DO NOW HOW DOES THE MONSOON AFFECT INDIAN FARMERS? READ IN YOUR TEXTBOOKS ON PAGES 71-70 UNDER THE SECTION “THE LAND OF INDIA
15. Caste system 15. Social categories that determined a person’s occupation, economic potential, and position in society India’s Social System: The arrival of the Aryans had a lasting impact on Indian society. It led to the development of new social classes and a caste system. There are thousands of caste systems or (jati) in India. They are based on a person’s occupation and extended family network. In addition to the caste system, Indian society was broadly divided into four major social classes called varnas. At the top were two varnas that were clearly the ruling elites in Aryan society: the priests and the warriors.
Caste System: There was no way for any person of social status to move up into society. What you are born into is what you will be for the rest of your life.
16. Patriarch 17. Men 18. Women 16. Society dominated by men 17. Could not marry until they completed 12 years of study 18. Did not work outside the home; were inferior to men Ex: suttee Family life in India: Life in ancient India centered on the family, the most basic unit in society. The ideal was an extended family, with three generations—grandparents, parents, and children—living under the same roof. The family was basically patriarchal, because in most of India the oldest male held legal authority over the entire family unit.
DO NOW • IMAGINE THAT YOU ARE LIVING IN ANCIENT INDIA AND DESCRIBE WHAT LIFE IS LIKE LIVING IN A SOCIETY WITH A CASTE SYSTEM. • EXPLAIN WHAT YOU MUST DO IN ORDER TO MOVE UP IN THE CASTE SYSTEM
DO NOW • What is the caste system? Briefly explain each level of the caste system in India. How can you move up in this caste system? • READ IN YOUR TEXTBOOKS ON PAGES 75-77 OR LOOK IN YOUR NOTES
DO NOW • What is the caste system? Briefly explain each level of the caste system in India. How can you move up in this caste system? • LOOK IN YOUR TEXTBOOKS ON PAGES 45-51 OR LOOK IN YOUR NOTES
DO NOW • EXPLAIN THE FAMILY LIFE OF PEOPLE IN ANCIENT INDIA????? • WHAT WAS THE RITUAL KNOWN AS SUTTEE??? • LOOK IN YOUR NOTES AND READ YOUR BOOKS ON PAGE 76 IN THE SECTION TITLED “DAILY LIFE IN ANCIENT INDIA”
DO NOW • EXPLAIN THE FAMILY LIFE OF PEOPLE IN ANCIENT INDIA????? • WHAT WAS THE RITUAL KNOWN AS SUTTEE??? • LOOK IN YOUR NOTES AND READ YOUR BOOKS ON PAGES 47-48 IN THE SECTION TITLED “DAILY LIFE IN ANCIENT INDIA”
19. Hinduism 20. Vedas 21. reincarnation 19. religious beliefs of the Aryan peoples who settled in India 20. Collections of hymns and religious ceremonies that were passed down orally and eventually written down 21. is the belief that the individual soul is reborn in a different form after death Religion:Hinduism had its origins in the religious belief of the Aryan peoples who settled in India after 1500 B.C. Early Hindus believed in the existence of a single force in the universe, a form of ultimate reality or God, called Brahman. It was the duty of the individual self called the atman to seek to know this ultimate reality. By doing so, the self would merge with Brahman after death.
DO NOW • WHAT IS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN REINCARNATION AND THE CASTE SYSTEM? HOW DOES KARMA HAVE A ROLE IN ONE’S POSITION IN THE CASTE SYSTEM?
22. Karma 23. dharma 22. force generated by a person’s actions that determines how the person will be reborn in the next life “what goes around comes around” 23. the divine law; requires all people to do their duty After a number of existences in the earthly world, the soul reaches its final goal in a union with Brahman. According to Hinduism, all living beings seek to achieve this goal. Important to this process is the idea of karma which is ruled by dharma, or the divine law. More is expected of those high on the social scale, such as the Brahmans.
DO NOW • EXPLAIN THE RELATIONSHIP THAT EXISTS IN HINDUISM BETWEEN THE CASTE SYSTEM, KARMA AND THE DHARMA, OR DIVINE LAW • READ IN YOUR TEXTBOOKS ON PAGES 75-77 UNDER THE SECTION TITLED “SOCIETY IN INDIA” AND “HINDUISM”
24. yoga 25. Buddhism 24. a method of training designed to lead to a oneness with god 25. the founder of Buddhism was Siddhartha Gautama “the Enlightened One” (born in 563 B.C.E.) How does one achieve oneness with God? Hindus developed the practice of yoga, a method of training designed to lead to such union. The final goal of yoga was to leave behind the cycle of earthly life and achieve union with Brahman, seen as a kind of dreamless sleep.
26. ascetics 27. Materialistic things 28. nirvana 26. self-denial to achieve an understanding of ultimate reality 27. Cause suffering 28. Achieving wisdom, the end of the self and reunion with the Great World Soul Siddhartha became aware of the pain of illness, the sorrow of death, and the effects of old age on ordinary people. He decided to spend his life seeking the cure for human suffering. He gave up his royal clothes shaved his head, abandoned his family, and set off to find the true meaning of life.
Four Noble Truths • 1. Ordinary life is full of suffering. • 2. This suffering is caused by our desire to satisfy ourselves. • 3. The way to end suffering is to end desire for selfish goals and to see others as extensions of ourselves. • 4. The way to end desire is to follow the Middle Path also known as the Eightfold Path. See page 79 in your book
Quiz • 1. The two major cities which contained broad streets, courtyards, advanced drainage systems and street level garbage bins. • 2. The name of the highest mountain in the world. • 3. What is India’s major basis of economy? • 4. A plateau that extends from the Ganges Valley to the southern tip of India. • 5. A a seasonal wind pattern in southern Asia.
DO NOW • Read pages 347-349 about the first Native Americans. Then answer questions 2 and 3 on page 350. You will be turning this in today so make sure you get to work on it as soon as you can. Tomorrow, I will have all of your grades in the grade book and I will tell you what assignments you are missing and need to make up………….
DO NOW • EXPLAIN HINDUISM IN ITS RELATION TO THE CASTE SYSTEM? • HOW CAN YOU MOVE UP IN THE CASTE SYSTEM??????
DO NOW • Leprosy attacks nerve endings and destroys the body's ability to feel pain and injury. The disease creates deformities on the body. People who have it in India are outcastes and placed in a leprosy colony. How does this relate to India’s belief in reincarnation???? • READ IN YOUR TEXTBOOKS ON PAGE 77 UNDER THE SECTION TITLED “HINDUISM”
Aryans brought little political unity to India. Warring kingdoms and shifting alliances prevented lasting peace. 1. Alexander the Great 1. gave rise to the first dynasty in India. Section 2: New Empires in India
2. Chandragupta Maurya 3. Asoka 2. founded the first Indian Empire; highly centralized 3. considered to be the greatest ruler in the history of India The Founding of the Mauryan Dynasty: Maurya drove out the foreign forces and established the capital of his new Empire in northern India in the Ganges Valley. The king divided his empire into provinces which were ruled by governors appointed by him. He had a large army and a secret police that followed his orders.Asoka’s kingdom prospered as India’s role in regional trade began to expand. India became a major crossroads in a vast commercial network that extended from the rim of the Pacific to Southwest Asia and the Mediterranean Sea.
4. Kushan Kingdom 5. Silk Road 4. spread over northern India as far as the central Ganges Valley; prospered from Silk Road 5. trade that occurred between the Roman Empire and China Called silk road because silk was China’s most valuable product. After the collapse of the Mauryan Empire, a number of new kingdoms arose along the edges of India in Bactria, known today as Afghanistan. In the 1st century B.C. nomadic warriors seized power and established the new Kushan kingdom. Kushans spread over northern India as far as the central Ganges Valley. In the rest of India, other kingdoms fought for control. The Kushans prospered from the trade that passed through their land on its way between the Mediterranean Sea and the countries bordering the Pacific Ocean. Most of that trade was between the Roman Empire and China.
Exports and Imports of China and India INDIA CHINA Imports: ivory, textiles, precious stones, pepper, woolen and linen cloth, glass Exports: silk, spices, teas and porcelain • Imports: Woolen, linen cloth, glass, precious stones, silk, teas, porcelain; • Exports: ivory textiles, precious stones, pepper
6. Gupta Kingdom 7. Pilgrims 6. Became the greatest Indian state since the Mauyan Empire; actively engaged in trade 7. people who travel to religious places; much of Guptas wealth came from religious trade of pilgrims The Kushan Kingdom came to an end in the third century A.D., when invaders from Persia overran it. In 320, a new state was created in the central Ganges Valley by a local prince named Chandragupta. Eventually the new kingdom of the Guptas became the dominant political force throughout northern India. It also established loose control over central India. The Gupta Empire actively engaged in trade with China, Southeast Asia, and the Mediterranean and also encouraged domestic trade in cloth, salt, and iron. Much of their wealth came from religious trade of pilgrims
8. Huns 9. Vedas 8. nomadic group who invades Gupta and reduces the power of the Gupta empire 9. earliest known Indian literature which were primarily religious Were written down in Sanskirt The good fortunes of the Guptas did not last. Beginning in the late 5th century A.D., invasions by nomadic Huns from the Northwest gradually reduced the power of the empire. A military commander briefly revived the empire in the middle of the 7th century, but after his death, the empire fell completely apart. North India would not be reunited for hundreds of years. Few countries in the world are as rich and varied as that of India. The country produced great works in almost all cultural fields, including literature, architecture and science.
10. Mahabharata 11. Kalidasa 10. Longest poem in any written language Bhagavad Gita is the most famous section of this poem 11. one of India’s most famous authors 11. wrote The Cloud Messenger With the development of writing, India’s great historical epics, the Mahabharata and the Ramayana, were also put into written form. Both of these epics told of the legendary deeds of great warriors. The Mahabharata consists of over ninety thousands stanzas, making it the longest poem in any written language. Probably written about 100 B.C., it describes a war between cousins in Aryan society for control of the kingdom about 1000 B.C. The Ramayana is strongly imbued with religious and moral lessons. To this day, the Mahabharata and the Ramayana continue to inspire the people of India.
12. architecture 13. Aryabhata 12. three types of structures, all serving religious purposes: the pillar, the stupa, and the rock chamber 13. Most famous mathematician of the Gupta Empire First scientist to have used algebra Some of the earliest examples of Indian architecture stem from the time of Asoka when Buddhism became the religion of the state. The desire to spread the ideas of Gautama Buddha inspired the great architecture of the Mauryan dynasty and the period that followed. There were three main types of structures, all serving religious purposes. The pillar is the most famous. During Asoka’s reign, many stone pillars were erected along side roads to mark sites related to events in Buddha’s life. A stupa was originally meant to house a relic of the Buddha, such as a lock of his hair. These structures were built in the form of burial mounds.
Science: Ancient Indians possessed an impressive amount of scientific knowledge, particularly astronomy. They charted movements of heavenly bodies and recognized that Earth was a sphere that rotated on its axis and revolved around the sun. Their most important contribution was in the field of mathmatics. Aryabhata, the most famous mathematician of the Gupta Empire, was one of the first scientists known to have used algebra. Indian mathematicians also introduced the concept of zero and used a symbol (0) for it. • Indian mathematician also introduced the concept of zero and used a symbol (0) for it. • Recognized that earth was a sphere that rotated on its axis and revolved around the sun
QUIZ ESSAY #1 • DESCRIBE THE RELATIONSHIP THAT EXISTS IN HINDUISM BETWEEN THE CASTE SYSTEM AND THE DHARMA, OR DIVINE LAW.
CONTEMPORARY INDIA VIDEO ANALYSIS • 1. HOW HAS INDIA CHANGED FROM A THRID WORLD COUNTRY TO A FIRST WORLD COUNTRY IN ONE GENERATION? • 2. WHAT PROBLEM ARE THESE SMALL SCALE FARMERS HAVING IN CONTEMPORARY OR TODAY’S INDIA? • 3. HOW DOES CONTEMPORARY INDIA RELATE TO OUR SOCIETY IN THE UNITED STATES (EXPLAIN THE SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES) • 4. HOW IS INDIA’S CASTE SYSTEM LIMITING THEIR SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC GROWTH AS AN ENTIRE COUNTRY
Leprosy in India Video • http://www.channel4.com/programmes/unreported-world/4od#3184818 • Journal Article: http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2003/06/0602_030602_untouchables.html