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Augmented Input (PDAs/Smartphones) Enhances Memory, Organization, and Social Skills \_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\ PowerPoint Presentation
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Augmented Input (PDAs/Smartphones) Enhances Memory, Organization, and Social Skills ________________________________________________ The University of Akron School of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology Yvonne Gillette, yg@uakron.edu Roberta DePompei, rdepom1@uakron.edu.

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slide1
Augmented Input (PDAs/Smartphones) Enhances Memory, Organization, and Social Skills ________________________________________________

The University of Akron

School of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology

Yvonne Gillette, yg@uakron.edu

Roberta DePompei, rdepom1@uakron.edu

what are pdas and smartphones robots
What are PDAs and Smartphones? --- ROBOTS!
  • PDAs (Personal Data Assistants)
    • Robots in the shape of small notebook
    • Enhances your memory and organization skills
    • Includes pages similar to daily planners
  • Smartphones
    • Cell phones with PDA-like software
    • Phone service
    • Note: Many cell phones have the same planning features
key features of pdas smartphones
Key Features of PDAs/Smartphones
  • Appointment Calendar (alarms)
  • Contacts
  • To Do List: Daily, Weekly, Long-Term
  • Claculator, Expense List
  • Self-reminders-Voice or Written Memos
  • Camera
benefits of pdas smartphones
Benefits of PDAs/Smartphones
  • Benefits over Paper Planners
    • Can provide alarms for calendar entries
    • Insurance against loss-can be backed up
  • General Benefits of Planners
    • Increase independence for your client
    • Assist with organization and memory
    • Provide a platform for planning
    • Promotes social skills
pda intervention plan assessment
PDA Intervention Plan : Assessment
  • Assesses a variety of functions
    • Appts,
    • Contacts,
    • To Do List,
    • Calculator/Expense List,
    • Self – reminders (written, voice)
    • Camera
  • Helps determine the need for PDA intervention
  • Provides baseline data
pda intervention plan assessment6
PDA Intervention Plan : Assessment

Assess skills on this 1-7 independence rating scale

  • 7- Independent (no prompts needed)
  • 6- Modified independence (independent in certain situations)
  • 5- Low assistance (prompts needed in 2/10 attempts)
  • 4- Moderate assistance (prompts needed in 4/10 attempts)
  • 3- Moderate/high assistance (prompts needed in 6/10 attempts)
  • 2- High assistance (prompts needed in 8/10 attempts)
  • 1- Total prompting & assistance
appointments
Appointments
  • How well does your client keep track of appointments?
  • Could a device assist with this issue?
  • What is your client’s current organization method?
  • Would a device help for keeping track of appointments?
contacts
Contacts
  • How well does your client keep track of contacts?
  • Could a device assist with this issue?
  • What is your client’s current organization method?
  • Would a device help for keeping track of contacts?
to do list
To Do List
  • How well does your client plan or follow to do lists?
  • Could a device assist with this issue?
  • What is your client’s current organization method?
  • Would a device help for planning and following to do lists?
calculator expense list14
Calculator, Expense List
  • How well does your client keep track of finances or use a calculator?
  • Could a device assist with this issue?
  • What is your client’s current organization method?
  • Would a device help for use of a calculator or expense list?
self reminders
Self- reminders
  • How well does your client keep track of reminders/memos?
  • Could a device assist with this issue?
  • What is your client’s current organization method?
  • Would a device help for self-reminders?
camera18
Camera
  • How well does your client keep track of personal events?
  • Could a device assist with this issue?
  • What is your client’s current organization method?
  • Would a device help for a record of personal events?
intervention plan identify environment partner opportunities
Intervention Plan: Identify Environment, Partner, Opportunities

Provides Negotiations Points for interventionist and client/significant others

  • Choose environments,
  • Choose partners
  • Choose opportunities for use within environs
    • Remindering (Meds, Appts. Assignments)
    • Planning the day
    • Planning and monitoring expenses
    • Interacting with healthcare system, friends, family
    • Providing access to portable computer functions – Office, email
pda intervention plan identify functions
PDA Intervention Plan: Identify Functions
  • Identify useful functions and one function to target for intervention
    • Calendar
    • Alarm
    • Contacts
    • To Do List
    • Notes/memos to self – written, oral
    • Calculator
    • Camera
    • Games
    • Computer functions
    • Microsoft Office
pda intervention plan identify outcomes
PDA Intervention Plan: Identify Outcomes
  • Identify initial outcomes, formulate a measurable outcome
  • Examples
    • Responds once each day to one alarm in a timely fashion
      • Present level, moderate assistance, prompts needed 4/10 opportunities
      • Projected level: Low assistance, prompts needed 2/10
    • Completes one chore once each day
      • Present level, Low assistance, prompts needed 2/10 opps
      • Projected level: modified independence, independent at home with trash
    • Subtracts amount spent from total amount to determine change
      • Present level, Moderate/high assistance, prompts needed 6/10 opps
      • Projected level: Moderate assistance, prompts needed 4/10
pda intervention plan identify schedule
PDA Intervention Plan: Identify Schedule
  • Schedule – ideally should be within the PDA/Smartphone
  • Days and Times each opportunity will occur
  • Person responsible for task completion should be part of the scheduling negotiation
  • Adjust schedule as needed
  • Important but often neglected step
pda intervention planning monitoring plan
PDA Intervention Planning: Monitoring Plan
  • Identify progress on the plan
  • Identify what needs to change – consider environment, partner, opportunity-function , outcome, or schedule as potentially needing change
    • Collect views of client
    • Collect views of partner
  • Negotiate a new plan based on data collected
mean rate of responding across condition

Mean Rate of Responding Across Condition (Baseline, Planner, Dell, Palm)

100

90

80

70

60

Weeks 1-4

Mean Rate of Responding

50

Weeks 5-8

40

30

20

10

0

SA-

A-TBI

A-ID

SA-

A-TBI

A-ID

SA-

A-TBI

A-ID

SA-

A-TBI

A-ID

ID/TBI

ID/TBI

ID/TBI

ID/TBI

Baseline

Planner

Dell

Palm

Condition by Population

Mean Rate of Responding Across Condition
key findings for rate of responding
Key Findings for Rate of Responding:
  • Palm PDA was the most effective reminder method across groups
    • School-age TBI/ID site had greatest mean rate of response across sites and conditions with Palm
    • Adult TBI site had next highest rate with Palm
  • Planner was the least effective
  • Reminder systems were most effective with school-age TBI/ID and adult TBI sites
key findings for adults with tbi
Key Findings for Adults with TBI:
  • Participants:
    • Performed best with PDA
    • Performed better with simple list than PDA
    • Showed no difference between phone call and daily task
    • Performed better with Palm than Dell
  • Gender, age, and cognitive test performance levels were not predictive
key findings for students with id or tbi
Key Findings for Students with ID or TBI:
  • Participants:
    • Performed best with PDA
    • Performed better with simple list than PDA
    • Showed no difference between phone call and daily task
    • Had similar performance with Dell and Palm
    • Performed 15% better in least restrictive environment
    • Were 50% better with an A.M. reminder
  • Gender, age, diagnosis, and cognitive test performance levels were not predictive
key findings for adults with id
Key findings for adults with ID:
  • More independence with electronic
  • Relieved caregiver burden
  • Performed best with A.M. reminder
  • Better performance in non-sheltered workshops due to more environmental opportunities
three studies
Three Studies
  • 35 - Alarm Study participants
  • 07 - Multiple Function participants
  • 02 - SmartPhone Studies
case 1 rw
Case 1: RW
  • Female
  • Age: 19
  • Sustained TBI in car crash
  • School Placement: Educ. Services through a county MRDD program
  • Device: Palm
rw multiple function study
Used pre and post training:

Calendar

Responding to alarms

Setting alarms

Accessing data

Contact List

Accessing data

Entering data

Task List

Accessing data

Calculator

Games

Solitaire

Camera

Computer Functions

Hot sync

RW: Multiple Function Study

Did not use pre or post:

  • MS Office
  • Personalization options
slide36

RW: Multiple Function Study

New Functions:

  • Task List
    • Entering data
  • Notes
    • Text
    • Voice
  • Games
    • Tetris
  • Beaming
  • Computer Functions
    • File upload
rw phase 3 smartphone functions
RW Phase 3– Smartphone Functions
  • Additional functions used at end of phase 3:
    • Phone
    • Calendar
      • Entering data
    • Games
      • Jawbreaker
  • New features used:
    • Ring tones
    • Screen settings
    • Background
subject description mb
Subject Description: MB
  • Male
  • Age 14
  • Intellectual Disability
  • Special education classroom/middle school
  • Limited literacy skills; good verbal skills
  • Dell Pocket PC
mb multiple function study
Used pre and post training:

Calendar

Responding to alarms

Games

Jawbreaker

MB: Multiple Function Study

Did not use pre or post:

  • Task List
  • Computer Functions
  • MS Office
  • Personalization options
mb multiple function study44
MB: Multiple Function Study

New Functions:

  • Calendar
    • Setting alarms
    • Accessing data
  • Contact List
    • Accessing data
    • Notes
    • Text
    • Voice
  • Calculator
  • Games
    • Tetris
  • Beaming
mb phase 3 smartphone functions
MB Phase 3 – Smartphone Functions
  • Additional functions used at end of phase 3:
    • Phone
    • Calendar
      • Entering data (with written prompts)
    • Contact List
      • Entering data (with written prompts)
    • Task List
      • Accessing data
    • Camera
  • New features used:
    • Ring tones
    • Background
tips for interventionists
Tips for Interventionists
  • Acquire knowledge and experience about devices
  • Client response to device prompts first, then data entry
  • Involve the intervention team in the use of the device.
  • Begin with frequent intervention decrease sessions over time
  • Clients can wear the device to prevent loss or theft.
  • Get feedback from the team and your client on a regular basis.
  • Encourage exploration of device functions, including games.
  • Use of device is not limited to work-tasks and can be used for fun.
pda to smart phones a logical next step for universal access design
PDA to Smart Phones a Logical Next Step for Universal Access/Design

Everybody's Gotta Have One!