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© Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD, 7th Grade PowerPoint Presentation
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© Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD, 7th Grade

© Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD, 7th Grade

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© Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD, 7th Grade

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  1. 7th Grade Science Unit 2 : Life Science http://science.howstuffworks.com/animal-camouflage2.htm http://www.1biology.50megs.com/anteriorskeleton.htm http://www.ucfv.bc.ca/biology/terry/111/mendel3.jpg © Fall 2005, Pflugerville ISD, 7th Grade

  2. Unit 2: Life Science Chapter 9: Introduction to the Human Body Section 1: Body Organization Section 2-4: Body System Interactions Unit 2 : Chapters 7,8,9,10,14

  3. Unit : 2 Life Science Chapter 10: Mendel and Heredity Section 1: Mendel and His Peas Section 2: Introducing Meiosis Section 3: Evolution Chapter 14: Animals and Behavior Section 1: What is an Animal? Section 2: Animal Behavior Section 3: Living Together Unit 2 : Chapters 7,8,9,10,14

  4. Introduction to the Human Body What Do You Think? Why is water an important part of homeostasis? Unit 2 : Chapter 9 : Section 1

  5. Introduction to the Human Body • Remember from Chapter 8 that homeostasis is the bodies way of having a stable internal environment. • In order for all of the systems of our body to work together, we must maintain homeostasis. Unit 2 : Chapter 9 : Section 1

  6. Let’s Review! • 1 - Describe how bones help your body maintain a stable internal condition while you live in a changing external environment. http://rds.yahoo.com/S=96062883/K=skeletal+system/v=2/SID=e/l=IVR/SIG=11sghop8u/EXP=1130873051/*-http%3A//www.fihm.com/html/syl/syl_10.html Unit 2 : Chapter 9 : Section 1

  7. Answer • Bone support your body, store and release minerals, and enable your muscles to move the body. Some bones also make blood cells. • All of these things help maintain homeostasis. Unit 2 : Chapter 9 : Section 1

  8. Introduction to the Human Body Systems of the Body and their Functions Unit 2 : Chapter 9 : Section 1

  9. Introduction to the Human Body Systems of the Body and their Functions Unit 2 : Chapter 9 : Section 1

  10. Introduction to the Human Body Systems of the Body and their Functions Unit 2 : Chapter 9 : Section 1

  11. Interactions of the Human Body Websites to visit: An interactive tour of all of the body systems. Interactive Human Body Kids Health: "My body" Unit 2 : Chapter 9 : Section 1

  12. Introduction to the Human Body Your bones are machines! • You may not think of bones as simple machines, but they are. • What simple machines would your bones act as? Unit 2 : Chapter 9 : Section 2-4

  13. Introduction to the Human Body • Bones function as levers! Unit 2 : Chapter 9 : Section 2-4

  14. Introduction to the Human Body What Do You Think? How do our organ systems work together? Unit 2 : Chapter 9 : Section 2-4

  15. Introduction to the Human Body How are organ systems interrelated? • All of the organ systems rely on each other for our whole body to work. Unit 2 : Chapter 9 : Section 2-4

  16. Introduction to the Human Body How are organ systems interrelated? • An example is that your muscular system needs your skeletal system, so it will have bones to support the muscles. If we did not have bones to hold up our muscles, we would be a big blob on the ground! Unit 2 : Chapter 9 : Section 2-4

  17. Introduction to the Human Body How are organ systems interrelated? • Our cardiovascular system relies on the respiratory system to oxygenate the blood. • All of our systems rely on the integumentary system to hold our organs in place. Unit 2 : Chapter 9 : Section 2-4

  18. Introduction to the Human Body As a group at your table. Describe in your notes how each of these systems rely on each other. • The cardiovascular and nervous system. • The digestive and muscular system. • The skeletal and nervous system. • The urinary and muscular system. • The respiratory and nervous system. Unit 2 : Chapter 9 : Section 2-4

  19. Let’s Review • 1 - Why would the muscular system need the skeletal system? Unit 2 : Chapter 9 : Section 2-4

  20. Introduction to the Human Body • The muscles need the bones to help them stand up. Without the bones, our muscles would be a big blob on the ground! Unit 2 : Chapter 9 : Section 2-4

  21. Introduction to the Human Body Pre-AP Website http://www.texashste.com/html/APHS.HTM Unit 2 : Chapter 9 : Section 2-4

  22. Mendel and His Peas What Do You Think? Some of your science class has brown eyes, some blue eyes, some hazel eyes. Where do people get these different traits? Unit 2 : Chapter 10 : Section 1

  23. Mendel and His Peas Vocabulary Chapter 10 • Heredity- the passing of traits from parent to offspring. • Self-pollinate- A plant is often able to pollinate by itself because it contains both the male and female reproductive structures. This only requires 1 parent. Unit 2 : Chapter 10 : Section 1

  24. Mendel and His Peas 3. True-breeding- all of the offspring will have the same trait as the parent when self-pollinated • First-generation- the very first set of offspring from two parents • Dominanttrait- the trait observed when at least one dominant allele for a characteristic is inherited Unit 2 : Chapter 10 : Section 1

  25. Mendel and His Peas 6. Recessivetrait- a trait that is apparent only when two recessive alleles for the same characteristic are inherited • Genes- a segment of DNA that carries hereditary instructions and is passed from parent to offspring • Alleles- multiple forms of the same gene Unit 2 : Chapter 10 : Section 1

  26. Mendel and His Peas • Genotype- an organisms inherited combination of alleles 10. Phenotype- an organisms inherited appearance Unit 2 : Chapter 10 : Section 1

  27. Mendel and His Peas Gregor Mendel • Gregor Mendel, born in 1822, is named the “Father of Genetics”. http://www.pitt.edu/~biohome/Dept/Frame/pisumprize.htm Unit 2 : Chapter 10 : Section 1

  28. Mendel and His Peas Gregor Mendel • Mendel began doing experiments with garden peas. He studied the shape of the seeds, how tall the plants grew to be, as well as the color of the flowers produced. http://www.fieldmuseum.org/exhibits/traveling_mendel.htm Unit 2 : Chapter 10 : Section 1

  29. Mendel and His Peas Gregor Mendel • Mendel crossed flowers that were true-breeding for each characteristic. • He crossed a purple flowered plant with a white flowered plant. http://biology.kenyon.edu/courses/biol114/KH_lecture_images/Mendel/Mendel.html Unit 2 : Chapter 10 : Section 1

  30. Mendel and His Peas PurpleParent Gregor Mendel • He created a first-generation of plants that all had purple flowers. • Where did the white color go?? White Parent Unit 2 : Chapter 10 : Section 1

  31. Mendel and His Peas PurpleParent • Mendel took two of his four first generation purple flowered plants and crossed them together. • He then got three purple plants, and one white flowered plant. Purple Parent Unit 2 : Chapter 10 : Section 1

  32. Mendel and His Peas Gregor Mendel • Mendel noticed in the first generation, all of the white flowers seemed to disappear. He called this a recessive trait. The white color faded into the background at first. It then showed back up as he pollinated the flowers again. Unit 2 : Chapter 10 : Section 1

  33. Mendel and His Peas Gregor Mendel • The color (purple) that seemed to mask over the recessive color was named the dominant trait. Unit 2 : Chapter 10 : Section 1

  34. Mendel and His Peas Gregor Mendel • Mendel was responsible for figuring out that each plant carried two sets of instructions for each characteristic (one from the “mom” and one from the “dad”). • Like many scientists, his work was not accepted until after his death. Unit 2 : Chapter 10 : Section 1

  35. Let’s Review - 1 - 1. If you crossed a true-breeding black rabbit with a true-breeding white rabbit, all of the offspring would be black. Which trait is dominant in rabbits: black fur or white fur? 2. Which trait is recessive? Unit 2 : Chapter 10 : Section 1

  36. Answer Black Rabbit • The trait for black fur is dominant over the trait for white fur. The white fur trait is recessive. White Rabbit http://www.buckeyevalleyfarms.freeservers.com/photo.html Unit 2 : Chapter 10 : Section 1

  37. Mendel and His Peas What Do You Think? What is the difference between sexual reproduction and asexual reproduction? Unit 2 : Chapter 10 : Section 2

  38. Mendel and His Peas Unit 2 : Chapter 10 : Section 2

  39. Let’s Review! - 1 - Which kind of reproduction results in offspring that are different from the parents- sexual or asexual reproduction? Explain why. Unit 2 : Chapter 10 : Section 2

  40. Answer Sexual reproduction results in offspring that are different from the parents. In sexual reproduction, two parent cells join together to form a new individual who has his or her own combination of genes. Unit 2 : Chapter 10 : Section 2

  41. Mendel and His Peas What Do You Think? How do mutations relate to DNA and genetics? Unit 2 :Chapter 10 : Section 3

  42. Mendel and His Peas Evolution • Many scientists believe that changes in the plants and animal species on earth can be explained by evolution. • The theory of evolution is the process by which populations accumulate inherited changes over time. Unit 2 :Chapter 10 : Section 3

  43. Mendel and His Peas Mutations and Natural Selection • According to the theory of evolution, two processes are necessary for populations to change over time. These are mutations and natural selection. Unit 2 :Chapter 10 : Section 3

  44. Mendel and His Peas Mutations • In order for a population to change, genes must be able to change. • Genes are made of DNA. • DNA is made of 4 parts, called nucleotides. Unit 2 :Chapter 10 : Section 3

  45. Mendel and His Peas Mutations cont… • The order of the nucleotides that are put together determines what characteristics you will receive from your parents. Unit 2 :Chapter 10 : Section 3

  46. Mendel and His Peas Mutations cont… • Changes in the type or order in which these bases appear are known as mutations. • Mutations can be harmful, helpful, or not change an individual at all. http://www.wolflodge.org/visibiliti/prophecy/three%20legged%20frog.jpg Unit 2 :Chapter 10 : Section 3

  47. Mendel and His Peas Click below to see a video on mutations http://www5.unitedstreaming.com/index.cfm Unit 2 :Chapter 10 : Section 3

  48. Mendel and His Peas Natural Selection • Natural selection is a word that Charles Darwin made very popular. http://www.darwin.pan.pl/img/darwin.jpg Unit 2 :Chapter 10 : Section 3

  49. Mendel and His Peas Natural Selection • According to Darwin’s theory, natural selection says that: - organisms that are better able to surviveand reproduce in an environment are more likely to pass their traits on to future generations. Unit 2 :Chapter 10 : Section 3

  50. Mendel and His Peas Natural Selection Natural selection can be divided into four steps: • Overproduction • Genetic Variation • Struggle to Survive • Successful Reproduction Unit 2 :Chapter 10 : Section 3