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The Effect of Voice-over Gender and Targeted Gender of Product on Television Commercial Effectiveness. Melissa W. Alfaro Ruanjia Hu Joyce Kosley Casey Martin Mount Holyoke College. Male Voice-overs Used . 1976 - Mc Arthur & Eisen 1978 - O’Donnell & O’Donnell 1988 - Bretl & Cantor

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slide1

The Effect of Voice-over Gender and Targeted Gender of Product on Television Commercial Effectiveness

Melissa W. Alfaro

Ruanjia Hu

Joyce Kosley

Casey Martin

Mount Holyoke College

male voice overs used
Male Voice-overs Used
  • 1976- Mc Arthur & Eisen
  • 1978- O’Donnell & O’Donnell
  • 1988- Bretl & Cantor
  • 1995- Pierracine & Schell
  • 1997- Synder
slide3

Hypothesis

We hypothesize that Mount Holyoke College students will find a commercial more effective when the gender of the voice-over in the commercial matches the targeted gender of the product being advertised.

slide4

INDEPENDENT VARIABLES

  • Gender of Voice-over
  • female or male
  • Targeted Gender of Product
  • female or male
  • DEPENDENT VARIABLE
  • Commercial Effectiveness
slide5

Why are no Main Effects predicted?

ME: Gender of Voice-over

Conflicting Research

ME: Targeted Gender of Product

A product’s gender image is related to the sex of its most likely user (Alreck, 1994; Alreck, Settle, & Belch, 1982).

Why is an Interaction predicted?

“Match-up” Hypothesis

The product’s gender image and the spokesperson should converge in an effective advertisement (Kahle & Homer, 1985).

materials
Materials
  • Questionnaire –determines effectiveness* score
    • Highest Effectiveness Score = 30
    • 1-5 rating scale ( 1= strongly disagree and 5= strongly agree)

*defined as total positive attitude towards the commercial

    • Sample Questions:

“This commercial is persuasive.”

“The individual presenting the product is credible.”

      • “A member of the opposite sex would be more suitable in selling this product”
  • Emailresponse (not part of dependent measure)
participants
Participants
  • Randomly Assigned to one of four conditions
  • Total = 82
  • Male VO Male P= 20 Female VO Female P= 20
  • Male VO Female P=22 Female VO Male P=20
  • *no special requirements
30 second commercial clips
30 second Commercial Clips
  • Female VO Female P
  • Female VO Male P
  • Male VO Male P
  • Male VO Female P
procedure
Procedure

Email sent in 3 days

24 hours to respond to email

Debriefing Statement

slide10

RESULTS

  • HYPOTHESIS RESTATED and VARIABLES USED
  • We hypothesize that Mount Holyoke College students will find a commercial
  • more effective when the gender of the voice-over in the commercial matches the
  • targeted gender of the product being advertised.
  • Independent variables:
  • Gender of Voice-over
  • 2 levels: male/female
  • Targeted Gender of Product
  • 2 levels: male/female

Dependent variable: Commercial Effectiveness

Effectiveness = positive attitude towards the commercial

based on the questionnaire score

slide11

ANALYSIS AND RESULTS

  • Performed a two-way independent groups ANOVA
  • Found a significant interaction between gender of voice-over
  • targeted gender of product as hypothesized
    • F(1, 84) = 10.08, p<0.01
  • No Main Effects
    • Gender of Voice-Over
    • Targeted Gender of Product
slide13

Mean effectiveness scores of commercials with different gender of

voice-overs and targeted gender of product

Female VO Female P M=19.29

Male VO Male P M=18.43

Male VO Female P M=16.91

Female VO Male P M=16.0

hypothesis supported
Hypothesis Supported

For the female-targeted product:

  • The FEMALE voice-over

was significantly more effective

than the MALE voice-over

hypothesis supported cont d
Hypothesis Supported (Cont’d)

For the male-targeted product:

  • The MALE voice-over was significantly more effective than the FEMALE voice-over
hypothesis supported cont d16
Hypothesis Supported (Cont’d)
  • The commercial was rated as more effective when the gender of the voice-over and the targeted gender of the product MATCHED.
  • The commercial was rated as less effective when the gender of the voice-over and the targeted gender of the product MISMATCHED.
hypothesis consistent with past research
Hypothesis consistent with past research

Kahle & Homer (1985) 

The product’s gender image and the spokesperson should converge in an effective advertisement

Whipple and McManamon (2002) 

Commercial is more effective when female voice-over is used to advertise a female-targeted product, than a male voice-over

slide18

Implications

Male voice-overs are not always the most effective in commercials.

Advertisers should choose the gender of the voice-over according to the targeted gender of the product.

Future Studies

  • Different audience
  • Neutral voice-over
  • Neutral product
  • Labeling
problems and concerns
Problems and Concerns
  • Did we choose a proper product?
  • Were the male and female voice-overs consistent?
  • Technical Difficulties
  • Recognition of gender of product
  • Low effectiveness score across conditions
acknowledgements
Acknowledgements

We’d like to thank Professor Binder, Lisa, Natalie, Cheryl, Meredith, Roy and especially Nicole.