Effect of increasing division of labor on gender inequality
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Effect of Increasing Division of Labor on Gender Inequality. Shift to production for exchange Surplus held by a few men at the top Lower classes and women dependent Extrahousehold (public) sector dominated by men Household (private) sphere devalued Women labor for family use & reproduction

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Effect of increasing division of labor on gender inequality
Effect of Increasing Division of Labor on Gender Inequality

  • Shift to production for exchange

  • Surplus held by a few men at the top

  • Lower classes and women dependent

  • Extrahousehold (public) sector dominated by men

  • Household (private) sphere devalued

  • Women labor for family use & reproduction

  • Women lose adult status, become male property


Materialist theory
Materialist Theory

  • Marxist theory critiqued and refined

  • Materialist paradigm still useful and influential

  • Economic base (infrastructure)

    • Means of production = land, tools, equipment,

      factories, etc. used for livelihood

    • Relations of production = class relations

      between those who own the means of

      production (bourgeoisie)

      and non-owners who labor (proletariat)

  • Determines superstructure

    • Other parts of culture, e.g., law,

      political & social structure, ideology

Ideology

Social organization

Economic subsistence


Materialist feminist theory
Materialist Feminist Theory

  • Eleanor Leacock – Innu of Labrador

    • Commercial fur trade 1800s

    • Production for use  production for exchange

    • Women removed from economic activities

    • Women lose status, power, autonomy

  • Sedentarization of nomadic/foraging groups

    • Women removed from productive roles

  • Two primary factors in women’s status

    • Contribution to subsistence

    • Control of resources, including exchange


Kimmel
Kimmel

  • Theories that rely on biological inevitability

    • warfare

    • male bonding

    • exchange of women


Kimmel correlations of gender asymmetry
Kimmel: Correlations of Gender Asymmetry

  • Need for physical strength

  • Family size

  • Childcare

  • Father & son relationship

  • Control of fertility

  • Control over property

  • Spatial and ritual segregation

  • Perception of environment

  • Contribution to food supply

  • Work segregation

  • Control of political & ideological resources

  • Capitalism & industrialization

  • Demographic imbalance

  • Circumcision


Rapp women and the origin of the state
Rapp – Women and the Origin of the State

Historical, political, economic, & kinship systems in relation to subordination of women

  • Elite women in ranked (pre-state) societies

  • Increased stratification and hypergamy

  • Emphasis on women’s purity  control sexuality

  • Religious change

    • goddesses  gods

    • India: Dravidian vs. Aryan

    • Christian androgyny


Rapp women and the origin of the state1
Rapp – Women and the Origin of the State

  • Warfare

    • Warriors valued  male privilege

    • Warrior absence  female autonomy

  • Trade

    • Labor exploitation

    • Marriage alliances, polygyny

    • Bridewealth and class

    • Women as traders

  • Penetration into Third World

    • Colonialism, development

    • Women lose power, property, autonomy, valued roles


Domestic public divide
Domestic/Public Divide

  • Rosaldo and Lamphere: Women,

    Culture, and Society 1974

    • Rosaldo: D/P correlation with women’s status

      • Domestic/public dichotomy weak  women’s status higher

    • Chodorow: Reproduction and mothering

      • Female continuity vs. male separation

      • -e.g. Herdt: Sambia of New Guinea


Domestic public divide1
Domestic/Public Divide

  • Critiques of D/P dichotomy

    • Universal?

    • Influence of women’s struggles in U.S.

    • Never absolute – e.g. different uses, times

    • Generalization vs. real complexities

    • Different subject positions (class, race, etc.)

    • Historical development: industrial workplace

    • Western paradigms of D/P relative power

      • e.g. Java, India

    • ‘Patriarchy’