Transit-Oriented Development (TOD) An Overview
What Is TOD? • TOD is a synergism between land use and transit with the following key characteristics: • Compact Mixture of Uses; • Pedestrian Friendly and Walkable; and • Supportive of a Variety of Transit Options.
More About TOD • TOD provides access to a full range of transportation options: • Walking • Bicycling • Rail Transit • Bus Transit • Automobile • Transit stations are at the center of TODs; • The area within ¼ mile (or a five minute walk) of these stations forms the TOD core.
TOD Core’s Features • A vibrant mix of uses including: • Residential • Retail • Office • Commercial • Institutional • Thoughtfully designed community spaces; • Exciting, pedestrian friendly areas for live, work and play.
Modern TODs are the original Railroad Suburb concept modified to accept the auto.
Benefits of TOD • Increase transit ridership and reduce number of automobile trips generated; • Improve air quality; • Provide opportunities for neighborhood connections; • Increase sense of community; and • Reduce household fuel costs associated with heavy auto use.
Benefits Of TOD (Cont.) • Promote attractive, safe, walkable mixed-use neighborhoods; and • Increase value and income for property owners.
Benefits Of TOD (Cont.) • Expand markets and increase revenues for businesses; • Enhance tax revenues for local governments from rising land values; • Increase development and business transactions in areas near transit.
What Do Demographers Say? • Demographers estimate that as much as 30 percent of the demand for housing is for denser, walkable, mixed-use communities; and • Currently, less than 2 percent of new housing starts are in this category.
Who Will Live Near Transit Stations? • Single householders and couples without children (regardless of age) will generate nearly two-thirds of the total demand for TOD, a disproportionate share given their percentage of total households; and • Households with children will account for only about 20 percent of the demand for TOD.
National TOD Database • 3,353 Fixed Transit Stations in 28 regions • 1/4 and 1/2 mile radii + metropolitan comparison.
Real Estate Investment Adjacent to Transit • Washington DC, $15 billion (since 1976); • Portland, $3 billion (since the late 1970s); • Dallas, $1 billion (since 1996); • St. Louis, $1 billion (since 1993); and • Charlotte, $400 million (2000-2003).
Project Location • Arlington County, Virginia.
Transit Facilities and Services • Five Metro Rail stations in the corridors; and • Transit operator is the Washington Metropolitan Area Transportation Authority (WMATA).
TOD Facts • Over 21 million square feet of office, retail, and commercial space; • More than 3,000 hotel rooms; and • Almost 25,000 residences.
Lessons Learned • Think big and involve all stakeholders in dialogue; • Take your time on the big “framework” decisions. Once the framework is set, stick to it; • Have high expectations; • Plan well; • Be patient; • Maintain integrity of plan; • Be consistent; and • Density can motivate the private sector.
Project Location • Bethesda, Maryland.
Transit Facilities and Services • Metro rail operated by the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority; • First train departs: Station opens- 5:04 a.m. Shady Grove- 5:28 a.m. Glenmont- 5:14 a.m. Last train departs: Shady Grove- 12:23 a.m. Wheaton- 11:47 p.m. (Weekday schedules); • Metrobus connection: J2, J3, J4, J7, J9.
TOD Facts • Some 400,000 square feet of office space; • A 380-room Hyatt Hotel; • 60,000 square feet of retail space; and • The air-rights lease at the Bethesda Station generates $1.6 million annually in rents.
Project Location • Hillsboro, Oregon.
Transit Facilities and Services • Light Rail operated by Portland Tri-Met; and • Orenco Station is a neighborhood of the city of Hillsboro, Oregon, United States. The planned urban town center was designed as a pedestrian friendly, high density community built in conjunction with TriMet’s Westside light rail.
TOD Facts • 450 to 500 attached town homes and detached homes; • 1,400 luxury apartment units; • a town center that will initially feature 25,000 square feet of retail space, with 22 apartments or lofts above retail establishments and 24 live-work town homes; and • an additional 30,000 square feet of retail space will be available for future development.
Project Location • Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Transit Facilities and Services • The Martin Luther King Jr. East Busway is a two-lane dedicated bus-only highway serving the City of Pittsburgh and many of its eastern neighborhoods and suburbs. Total length is 9.1 miles; and • Three Port Authority routes and other express and suburban Flyer routes utilize the busway seven days a week.
TOD Facts • 59 new developments within 1,500 feet radius of station; • $302 million in land development benefits of which $275 million was construction. 80% clustered at station; • New construction and renovation of existing buildings; and • Retail, office and residential uses are most common.
Project Location • Los Angeles, California.
Transit Facilities and Services • Metro Red Line (Heavy Rail); and • Metro Orange Line (BRT).
TOD Facts • Through the hard work of community stakeholders in partnership with Los Angeles Neighbourhood Initiative (LANI) and the Community Redevelopment Agency, NoHo has transformed from a thoroughfare dotted with vacant lots to a burgeoning theater district with coffee shops, restaurants and eclectic retail. In June 2000, the terminal Metro Red Line subway station opened within walking distance of this blossoming neighbourhood main street; • Medium- and high-density developments are being built around the Metro Station; and • Condominium towers (including a 15-story building on Lankershim Blvd) being built in the midst of older one-story bungalows and small apartment complexes.
Project Location • Arlington and Fairfax Counties, Virginia.
Transit Facilities and Services • Streetcar technology; • Five mile connection between Skyline and Pentagon City; • Six-minute service; • Service augmented with Metro buses during peak periods.
TOD Facts • Include a mixture of community- and neighbourhood-serving retail, office, residential, and recreational/cultural uses developed with a pedestrian scale and character. New mixed-use projects would create a distinct new identity and provide future access to multi-modal transit options.