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The Yamato Period

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the yamato period

The Yamato Period

Sixth Century CE entered the Light of History Hegemony over a number of Territories Kyushu to Emishi Land in Eastern ProvinceThe Clans Uji or Blood Relatives Uji No Kami Head both Political and Sacerdotal Called upon to Perform Certain Sacred Rites to the Tutelary Deity of the Uji (Uji Gami) Clan Social Cohesions and Continuity


Clans ¼ were either Chinese or Korean Immigration Knowledge High Social Status Provincial Uji Chieftains Provincial Commander (Kuni-No-Miyatsuko) Court Took Over Uji Lands (Miyake) Prominent Chieftains (Kabane) Participate in Affairs at Court Omi and Muraji Chieftains and Imperial Court Occupational Groups (Be) Largest Be (Farmers) Fishermen, Potters, Weavers Each Uji No Kami controlled the Be in his Territory Below the Uji and Be were Slaves (Yatsuko) Membership in clan and guild were hereditary


Unification Forces Unification of Sui and Tang (Model) Korea Influenced Historic Japan Writing (Early 5th) By 8th measure of Man’s Worth Confucianism and Buddhism Vital Ingredient of Civilization Achievements of China 532 Korean King Sent Scriptures and Statuary


Two Early Periods Preparatory Stage (552-645) Actual Reform (645-710) Land Reform of 645 Fixed Capital at Nara in 710


First Period (552-645) Issue of Acceptance of Buddhism Muraji Family of Nakatomi and Muraji Family of Monobe Opposed Nakatomi Descent from Kami who attended Ninigi Imbe performed the Sacred Shinto Rituals Mononobe Were Miliary and wanted War Korean and Buddhism no War Great Omi Family Soga supported Buddhism


Emperor Kimmei (531) Soga came to Power Taxation and Finance Established National Treasury Fiscal Responsibility Trade not WarEmperor Kimmei Gave Permission for Chapel Pestilence| Disfavor of Native Kami Nakatomi and Mononobe Destroyed the Chapel Image into the Canal 585 another Chapel Pestilence Soga Chapel Destroyed Pestilence did not Cease


Soga Power Great provincial Uji (Outside Uji) Recent Comers to Court Imperial House Married Women from the Omi Families Soga Blood and Imperial LineSoga Umako”s Nephew Emperor Sushun Sushun Not Good Emperor Murdered Niece Suiko (592-628) First Historical Empress


Important Imperial Princes Prince Shotoku Taishi Crown Prince and Regent Mother was a Soga Master of Chinese Studies Ardent Champions of Chinese Culture Great Intellectual of his Age Text on Buddhism First National History Horyuji (Temple) Outside Nara Architectural Masterpiece


Horyuji Temple Area Horyuji Temple’s Middle Gate, Pagoda, and Main Hall 14 Centuries Oldest Wooden Structure Shotoku’s Study Eight Sided Veranda Chuguji Nunnery Nara Art Nyoirin Kannon (Camphor Wood Statue) Many Murals Destroyed by fire in 1950


Twelve Cap Ranking System (603 CE) Ministers separated by Headpieces Color Based on Merit rather than BirthSeventeen Article Constitution Not a Constitution Reverence to the Buddha, the Law, and Religious Community Han Confucianism—Virtuous Officials Frugal, Industrious, Prompt, Impartial, ObedientSend Students to China 600, 607, 608, 614 Ono No Imoko first Overseas Student Two Decades Some important in Taika Reform


Prince Shotoku’s Message “From the Son of Heaven of the Land of the Rising sun to the Son of Heave of the Land of the Setting Sun”China considered Japanese as Impertinent Barbarians in the Eastern SeaJapan did not accept Subordinate Treatment630 CE Mission to Tang China200 Years, 12 Missions, 100-600 PeopleJapan sent 10,000 troops to Korea to Recover Position Defeated Silla in 600 CE Pay Tribute Non-payment Prepare a Second Invasion Commander Dies Shotoku’s Brother


Soga Prince Shotoku (d. 622) Soga Umako (d. 625) Strengthen the Imperial Position of Japan Puppet Emperors 640’s Imperial Family Son Emishi and Grandson Iruka History (Nihon Shoki) Depict the two as Bad Rulers Crushed the son of Shotoku Nonentities Huge Mausoleums Palaces Children called Princes


The Opposition to the Soga Remove the Soga Centralize the Government Reduce the Power of the Provincial Uji Nakatomi Kamatari—Nakatomi Clan Prince Naka No Oye—Son of Empress Group of Men who had Traveled to China Studied the Institutions of the Tang Worried about Tang Expansion645 Prince Naka and Cohorts staged a Coup


645 Prince Naka and Cohorts Killed Soga IrukaImperial Palace before Empress and AttendantsNext Day, Emishi set fire to his MansionSix Decades of Soga came an End


Reformers Sponsorship of Chinese Form of Government Tassels on Caps Information in the Nihon Shoki Land Reform Destroy the Landholding and Social Organization Patterns of the Uji Great Uji virtually Autonomous “Private Lands and Private People Become Public Lands and Public People” Right of Public Domain People Direct Subjects of the Throne Equal Fields Triple Tax


Equal Fields One Plot per Adult Male Lesser Plots for Others Work Plots During Life Time Concession Made to Former Ruling Great Uji Larger Holding than the average Peasant Inspection Less and Less Too Early for such a System


Government Organization Abolish Kabane Titles Out Great Omi and Great Muraji Creation of Three Ministers Ministers of the Right, Left, and Center Nakatomi Kamatari became Mininster of the Center Nakatomi Kmatari became Fujiwara Kamatari Used name of Nihon Came to the West through Chinese “Jih-Pen” Source of the Sun Land of the Rising Sun


Nihon Divided Provinces, Districts, Townships Townships about 50 Households Provinces headed by Governor Four Year Term—sent from Court Districts headed by Governor Locals on a Hereditary Basis Governors from Lesser Uji Chieftains Support for Government Reforms


Divisions of Society Good People Peasants, Workers, Craftsmen, Artisans Ruling People Aristocracy Mean People 10% of population Slave-like Personal Servants


Prince Naka Uncle and Mother Crown Prince Seven Years after Mother’s Death (661 CE) 668 Became Emperor


About the Title Prince Shotoku replaced the Title of O-Kimi Chinese style of Tenno Tenno or Heavenly Sovereign O-Kimi, O-Muraji Upgrade the Imperial Prstige Prince Naka became Emperor Tenji Omens that had received Heaven’s Mandate Emperor Tenji died in 671 Problem with Son and Borther Brother became Emperor Temmu in 672 CE


Emperor Temmu Powerful Protection of Buddhism Consolidated Reforms Greater Uji supported Son and really Lost Compiled Important Legal Codes Emperor Tenji and Emperor Temmu Taiho Code of 701 CE Fundamental Law of the Court for next Eleven and Half Centuries Regularization and Bureaucratization of Central Governement