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Science Update Programmes for Secondary School Teachers 02-03 (Biology) Course 1. Human Responsibility for Environmental Conservation Part 2: Waste management Waste recycling industry in HK Sewage treatment in HK 1. Waste recycling industry in Hong Kong

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slide1

Science Update Programmes for Secondary School Teachers 02-03 (Biology)

Course 1. Human Responsibility for Environmental Conservation

  • Part 2: Waste management
    • Waste recycling industry in HK
    • Sewage treatment in HK
slide2

1. Waste recycling industry in Hong Kong

A. Solid waste transfer & disposal in HK

Source: http://www.epd.gov.hk/epd/

slide3

B. HK’s waste problem

  • About 6 M ton of waste dumped in landfills each year :
    • 55% (3.4 M ton) municipal solid waste (MSW)
    • 38% construction and demolition waste (C&DW)
    • 7% other wastes (sludge, animal carcass)
  • The 3 Strategic Landfills are filling up fast
    • Remaining capacity: around 110M tonnes
    • Expected to last another 10-15 years
    • Annual operating cost = HK$420 Million
slide4

C. Waste recycling in HK

  • I. MSW (2001)
    • 1.94 M ton (36 % of the total generated) were recovered
    • 8.8 % recycled locally
    • 91.2 % exported to the Mainland & other countries

The waste recycling industry of MSW in HK is small

slide6

Key players in MSW recovery in HK

EPD; green groups; corporate

Street collectors; cleansing workers

Medium or small size enterprises

More exporters, few recyclers

Source: http://www.epd.gov.hk/epd/

slide7

Constraints

  • A. Waste separation
    • Lack of civic responsibilities from the public
    • No financial incentives for the public to separate waste
    • Space problem in waste separation and storage at source
  • B. Waste recovery & recycling
    • High running cost…labour, transportation
    • Low technology and low efficiency
slide8

Efforts

  • Government measures to enhance waste reduction in 2001/ 2002
    • Injected $100M into the ECF
    • Awarded 1.8 hectares of (STT) land to recyclers
    • Tried out new schemes on waste recycling
    • Launched a major publicity drive
    • Placed over 20,000 waste separation bins
    • Launched pilot mobile phone recycling programme
    • Commissioned a pilot recycling facility at Tuen Mun
slide9

Future

  • Undertake pilot schemes on wet/dry waste separation
  • Increase the total number of waste separation bins to 28,000
  • Develop voluntary product responsibility schemes
  • Commence detailed feasibility study and EIA for the proposed Recovery Park
  • Continue to make available STT land for recycling industry
slide10

Future

  • Invite expressions of interest for Waste Management Facilities in 2001
    • Aims to seek from the commercial sector state-of-the-art technologies and practices that provide better technical, environmental, economic and social benefits in comparison with traditional landfill disposal
    • Received 59 submissions
slide11

Example

Industrialized Recycling

Source: P.C.C. Leung, EnviroSeries, Nov 2002

slide12

Example

The ArrowBio Process for MSW

Source: Y. zadik, EnviroSeries, Nov 2002

slide13

II. C & D Waste

  • Materials arising from construction, demolition, renovation & refurbishment:
    • Inert materials (rock, debris, rubble, excavated soil, concrete, asphalt, etc.)
    • Non-inert substances (bamboo, timber, paper, vegetation, packaging waste, organics, etc.)
  • Recyclable C&D Material:
    • Reusable / Recyclable Materials - soil, concrete, rock, asphalt, etc.
slide14

"Waste"

= 16,820tpd

Landfill

Inert C&D Material

= 32,430tpd

Public

Filling

Area /

Stockpile

C&D Waste*

= 6,410tpd

* Type I C&D Waste <= 30% Inert C&D Material.

2001

Total Waste Generation in Hong Kong

= 49,250tpd

MSW + Special Waste

= 10,410tpd

Mixed

C&D Material

= 38,840tpd

Source: A. Bhanja, EnviroSeries, Nov 2002

slide15

Total Waste Generation in Hong Kong

= 49,250tpd

MSW + Special Waste

= 10,410tpd

Total

Waste

= 14,900tpd

Landfill

MSW = 4,490tpd

Mixed

C&D Material

= 38,840tpd

C&D Waste*

= 6,410tpd

C&D = 1,920tpd

Total

Inert C&D Material

= 34,350tpd

Public

Filling

Area /

Stockpile

Inert C&D Material

= 32,430tpd

With Separation of C&D Materials

* Type I C&D Waste <= 30% Inert C&D Material.

Source: A. Bhanja, EnviroSeries, Nov 2002

slide16

C&D Materials

Inert Hard

Others

  • road sub-base

Soil/Clay

Metals

Wood

  • hardcore
  • topsoil
  • reuse steel bars
  • for energy recovery
  • drainage works
  • synthetic lightweight concrete
  • concrete
  • fibre board
  • landscape works

Alternative Uses of C&D Materials

Source: A. Bhanja, EnviroSeries, Nov 2002

slide17

Constraints

  • No incentive for building constructors to separate and recycle C & D waste

Efforts

  • Waste Reduction Framework Plan (WRFP) launched in November 1998
      • Aims:
  • Discourage - Collection and transporting to landfills
  • Encourage - Waste prevention, reuse
    • Targets:
          • 84% of C&D material is to be diverted away from landfills
slide18

Efforts

  • A pilot plant which was set up at the SENT Landfill in 1998 to recover usable materials (cover, roads, filling, landscaping and aggregate)
  • Another temporary facility provided by the Civil Engineering Department is also available at Tseung Kwan O Area 137.
slide19

Future

  • Put in place the landfill charging scheme for C&D Waste
  • Complete exploration on use of inert C&D materials outside HK
  • Commission another temporary fill bank at Tuen Mun
  • Two permanent sorting facilities are planned to be set up at Chai Wan and Kwai Chung
slide20

References

EPD, 2002. Municipal solid waste. http://www.epd.gov.hk/epd/english/environmentinhk/waste/prob_solutions/msw.html

EPD, 2002. Construction and demolition waste. http://www.epd.gov.hk/epd/misc/cdm/en_menu.html

EPD, 2002. Waste reduction guidelines and fact sheets. http://www.epd.gov.hk/epd/english/environmentinhk/waste/guide_ref/guide_wr.html

ADA, 2002. Waste management and recycling. EnviroSeries Conference CD-Rom. HKCEC, 21 November 2002, Hong Kong. Business Environment Council.

slide21

2. Sewage treatment in HK

Collection

Treatment

Disposal

Sewerage system

Sewage treatment plants

Sewerage system

  • Division of labour:
    • Policy & Planning - EPD
    • Sewerage & Sewage Treatment - Drainage Services Department
    • Sewerage in New Towns - Territory Development Department
slide22

Pollutants in sewage:

    • Solids e.g. paper, plastics
    • Organic material e.g. food waste, human waste - consumes oxygen from the water
    • Bacteria - public health concern
    • Ammonia - highly toxic to fish
    • Nitrogen - cause algal boom, sometimes forming red tides
    • Toxic metals – bioaccumulation hazard
slide23

Sewage collection in HK

Source: http://www.epd.gov.hk/epd/

slide24

Sewage Treatment Levels

  • Primary treatment (sedimentation)
    • removes about 30% of organic material
  • 2. Secondary treatment
    • Chemical treatment - removes over 60% of organic material
    • Biological treatment - removes up to 90% of the organic material as well as ammonia and some of the nitrogen
    • Disinfection - removal most of the bacteria
  • 3. Tertiary treatment
    • Further removal of ammonia and nitrogen by biological method
slide25

Level of treatment for sewage generated in Hong Kong

Source: http://www.epd.gov.hk/epd/

Most sewage in HK receive 1 or 2 treatment

slide26

Sewage treatment in Victoria Harbour

  • 65% of Hong Kong’s population
  • Treated/ raw sewage discharged have long exceed its natural assimilation

Source: http://www.info.gov.hk/dsd/sewerage/

slide27

1989

Strategic Sewage Disposal Scheme (SSDS)

Chemically Enhanced Primary Treatment (CEPT)

Renamed as Harbour Area Treatment Scheme (HATS) in 2001

Source: http://www.epd.gov.hk/epd/

slide28

1999

  • Delays in stage I raised widespread public concern
  • Continued criticism of the preferred treatment level and discharge arrangements

International Review Panel (IRP) On Sewage Treatment for the Harbour Area

slide29

IRP On Sewage Treatment for the Harbour Area

  • Started in 10 April 2000.
  • based on Stage I, whether the original SSDS remain the most sustainable arrangement in terms of cost, programme, practicality and environmental benefits
  • Report submitted on 30 November 2000
slide30

IRP report results

  • Stage I works should be completed as soon as possible
  • Tertiary treatment facilities could be incorporated using Biological Aerated Filters (BAF) technology.
  • Sewage could then be discharged permanently into the Western Harbour
  • Suggested 4 options for full collection and treatment. All use:
  • - BAF technology
  • - Deep sewage-collection tunnels
  • - Short outfalls
  • - cheaper and quicker
slide31

IRP report results

The existing Chemically Enhanced Primary Treatment (CEPT) at Stonecutters Island Treatment Works is operating efficiently

  • Removes 83% of suspended solids
  • Removes 74% of BOD.
  • Equivalent to 90% of the efficiency of a conventional biological secondary treatment plant
  • It will be possible to move straight from CEPT treatment to tertiary treatment by adopting BAF technology
slide32

Government's initial response to the IRP Report

  • will consider moving directly to tertiary treatment
  • will carry out the necessary environmental studies
  • Will conduct trials of BAF and other viable compact tertiary treatment technologies to confirm cost effectiveness
slide33

References

EPD, 2002. Planning for sewerage and sewage treatment. http://www.epd.gov.hk/epd/english/environmentinhk/water/prob_solutions/plan_sewerage.html

HK SAR Government, 2002. A clean harbour for Hong Kong. http://info.gov.hk/cleanharbour/