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Beyond the IED: Future Trends in the Study of Terrorism and the Education of Military Officers Dr. James JF Forest Director of Terrorism Studies U.S. Military Academy Beyond the IED: Future Trends in the Study of Terrorism and the Education of Military Officers Agenda:

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Beyond the IED: Future Trends in the Study of Terrorism and the Education of Military Officers

Dr. James JF Forest

Director of Terrorism Studies

U.S. Military Academy

slide2

Beyond the IED: Future Trends in the Study of Terrorism and the Education of Military Officers

Agenda:

1) The Two Professions

2) Education and the Study of Terrorism at West Point

3) Future Trends in the Study of Terrorism

4) Implications for the Education of Military Officers

5) Conclusion

slide3

1. The Two Professions

Academic Profession

Military Profession

slide4

1. The Two Professions

The Academic Profession

  • “The Key Profession – the profession that educates other professions”
  • Global similarities in the conduct of academic work
  • Considerable autonomy, academic freedom
  • Highly respected; special place in society
  • Stronger loyalty to disciplinary affiliations than institutions
  • Benefit of time to think deep thoughts, explore questions of great complexity
  • Expectations from society in exchange for this benefit (teach, publish)

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1. The Two Professions

The Military Profession

  • Neither a public service agency nor a private sector enterprise
  • Demands aptitude for leadership; leading soldiers in combat and peacekeeping missions
  • Highly respected; special place in society
  • Standard Operating Procedures, doctrines,
  • Intense loyalty, patriotism, service to the nation

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1. The Two Professions

Important Differences

Academic ProfessionMilitary Profession

Explore new intellectual territories Standard operating procedures

Informal peer review/governance Formal ranking & promotion system

Adherence to disciplines, theories Implementers of national policy

Training for research, teaching Training for war, national defense

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1. The Two Professions

Common Themes

  • In a profession, members are intrinsically motivated by their expert knowledge and dedicated to its application
  • In a profession, members are given a considerable amount of latitude with respect to making decisions about how to achieve pre-defined goals and objectives
    • The Academic Profession
      • maximizing student learning
      • contributing to a field of study
    • The Military Profession
      • managing the employment of violence to achieve political goals
  • And yet, both professions are in a battle to retain their traditional autonomy against the onslaught of an increasingly invasive bureaucracy

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1. The Two Professions

Collaboration

  • Security studies, terrorism studies, etc. – vital collaboration between academic and military professionals
  • The success we have had in the War on Terror is largely due to a mix of operational capabilities and intellectual capacity
  • Thucydides: “The nation that makes a great distinction between its scholars and its warriors will have its thinking done by cowards and its fighting done by fools.”
  • It is vital to link the scholars and the warriors; places like NSSC at Univ. of Haifa and the CTC at West Point serve this purpose

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leader development
Leader Development

CADET LEADER

DEVELOPMENT SYSTEM

ACADEMIC

PROGRAM

PHYSICAL

PROGRAM

MILITARY

PROGRAM

OfficershipDevelopmentStandards

Army Strategic Vision

Commissioned Officers:

Junior Grade

the academic program component
The Academic Program Component

CADET LEADER

DEVELOPMENT SYSTEM

ACADEMIC

PROGRAM

PHYSICAL

PROGRAM

MILITARY

PROGRAM

Multidisciplinary Academic Program Goals to Meet Army Needs

Expected Student Outcomes

Learning Models and Curriculum to Achieve these Outcomes

Cadet Leader

Development

System

Academic

Program

Senior Military Academy LeadershipGeneral CommitteeCurriculum Committee Assessment Steering CommitteeFaculty Goal TeamsCourse DirectorsInstructors

COMPREHENSIVE

ASSESSMENT

SYSTEM

the west point curriculum
The West Point Curriculum

Army Officer

Bachelor of Science Degree

10 - 13 Electives for a Major

4 Military Science 4 Physical Education

1 Philosophy/Ethics

2 Foreign Language

3 Social Sciences

2 Leadership

3 English

4 History

1 Law

3* Engineering Science/Design

2* Information Technology

1 Terrain Analysis

2 Chemistry

2 Physics

4 Math

The Core

Curriculum

16 Courses

Humanities and Social Science

14* Courses

Math, Science, & Engineering

* For cadets enrolled in non-ABET accredited majors only

the west point core curriculum
The West Point Core Curriculum

Year in School

Coll Math

Chem

Psych

History

Comp

1

Calculus I

Chem

IT1

History

Lit

Calculus II

Physics

Philosophy

Pol

Sci

For Lang

2

Prob

/Stats

Physics

Phys Geog

Econ

For Lang

Engineering Sequence #1

Elective for Major

IT2

Int’l

Rel

Leadership

Elective

3

Engineering Sequence #2

Elective for Major

Elective

Adv Comp

Elective

Elective

Elective for Major

Engineering Sequence #3

Law

Mil Art

Elective

Elective

4

Integrative

Experience

Mil Art

Elective

Elective

Elective

Graduation and Commissioned as 2nd Lieutenant in U.S. Army

the academic program component14
The Academic Program Component

CADET LEADER

DEVELOPMENT SYSTEM

ACADEMIC

PROGRAM

PHYSICAL

PROGRAM

MILITARY

PROGRAM

Army Leaders must:

demonstrate:Creativity

Moral Awareness

Commitment to Continued Intellectual Development

Effective listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills

understand:Culture

History

Patterns of Human Behavior

Mathematics and Science

Engineering and Technology

Information Technology

10 Multidisciplinary Academic Program Goals

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2. Education at West Point

Overall Goal

Graduates of West Point will anticipate and respond effectively to the uncertainties of a changing technological, social, political, and economic world.

slide16

3. The Study of Terrorism at West Point

Mr. Vincent Viola (’77)

GEN Wayne Downing

slide17

The Combating Terrorism Centerat West Point

The Department of Social Sciences

Dynamic Leaders

Weapons of Mass Destruction

Counterterrorism

Homeland Security

Terrorism

Education, Research and Policy Analysis

courses we teach

3. Terrorism Education at West Point

Courses we teach
  • Terrorism & Counterterrorism
  • Advanced Terrorism Studies
  • Homeland Security Seminar
  • Intelligence and Terrorism
  • Information Warfare

* Minor in Terrorism Studies

lesson topics include

3. Terrorism Education at West Point

Lesson topics include:
  • History of Terrorism
    • Case studies
  • Individual Motivations
    • Psychological and social dimensions
    • Strategic/rational choice
    • Psychological driving forces
  • Group dynamics
    • Recruitment
    • Training
    • Goals, objectives, strategies, tactics
    • Ideology and communication
    • Organizational learning aspects of terrorist groups
lesson topics include20

3. Terrorism Education at West Point

Expectations

Lesson topics include:

Opportunities

  • Recent trends in terrorism
    • Madrid, Bali, London, Niger Delta
  • Local circumstances that support terrorism
    • Political, economic and social conditions before terrorism
  • Facilitators of terrorism
    • Financial & criminal networks
  • Combating terrorism
    • U.S. National Security Strategy, CT Strategy, HS Strategy, etc.
    • MIDLIFE dimensions of national power
    • Strategic implications of military action
slide22

4. Future Trends in the Study of Terrorism

  • Comparative Studies of Terrorism and Counterterrorism
    • National, regional, subregional levels
    • Comparing responses to terrorism in places like Ireland, Spain, Israel, Turkey, Cyprus, the UK, Sri Lanka, etc. . . .
    • Developing typologies of terrorism and the response to terrorism
    • What can we learn from successes in places like Mozambique?
    • What common political, social contexts can we identify that indicate a high likelihood that a group will engage in terrorist activity?
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4. Future Trends in the Study of Terrorism

  • Multidisciplinary Studies
  • (engaging new disciplines beyond political science, sociology, psychology)
  • For example:
    • Business (franchises, organizational learning theory, mergers, etc)
    • Medicine (viruses, antibodies)
    • Education (cognitive development, knowledge transfer)
    • Natural Sciences (chemistry, biology, etc.)
    • Other Behavioral and Social Sciences (e.g., economics)
  • Also, multidisciplinary collaboration in the study of terrorism
slide24

4. Future Trends in the Study of Terrorism

  • Some multidisciplinary questions that need answers:
    • What are the vulnerabilities of a networked terrorist organization?
    • What are some ideological differences among key terrorist groups, and how can these differences be exploited by counterterrorists?
    • What new approaches for combating terrorism can be developed in an open, democratic society?
    • How can we improve the practice of counterterrorism?
    • How can we change the role of the media as “force multiplier”?
    • What about the “mysteries” of terrorism?
slide25

4. Future Trends in the Study of Terrorism

  • Other multidisciplinary issues that need further research:
  • Evolutions in terrorist strategies, weapons and tactics
    • The dimensions of terrorism and WMD
    • Future acts of terrorist “judo”
    • Information warfare
    • Electronic warfare
  • Potential terrorist group alliances
    • Common ideology?
    • Complimentary goals/objectives?
    • Common enemy / common hatred of a particular policy?
    • Strategic sense (better potential for success by combining forces)?
    • Complimentary strengths? Mutual Gain?
  • 5th Generation Warfare – strategic surprises of tomorrow?
slide26

5. Implications for the Education of Military Officers

Officers must have a total grasp of the struggle, not just the terrorist acts

Why is terrorism being used as a tactic?

What are the political goals? Part of an insurgency?

What are the political, social, economic, cultural, information dimensions of the conflict as well as the security and military aspects.

How do these interrelate?

Training on tactics, techniques, and procedures can be developed but not until the leaders have the background

slide27

5. Implications for the Education of Military Officers

  • The Military Officer of tomorrow must:
  • Understand terrorists’ strategies (particularly at junior officer level)
  • Maintain a high level of adaptability/flexibility in their response to terrorism
  • Employ the discriminate yet decisive use of violence
  • Understand the political objectives of military operations
  • Have a full appreciation of many forms of technology and yet avoid over-reliance on technology vs. real situational awareness
  • Find ways for better collection and integration of human intelligence
slide28

5. Implications for the Education of Military Officers

  • The Military Officer of tomorrow must:
  • Anticipate and respond effectively to ambiguous situations
  • Develop the skills of indirect leadership/influence
  • Appreciate the cultural dimensions of local support for insurgencies
  • Recognize and understand local historical grievances
  • Develop a capacity for systems thinking – must understand the phenomena of second- and third-order effects
  • Be able to recognize telltale signs of chem/bio weapons development
slide29

5. Implications for the Education of Military Officers

  • The Military Officer of tomorrow must:
  • Understand the asymmetric warfare environment, strategy, tactics
  • Appreciate political history of any conflict to which they are deployed
  • Be a more effective communicator/messenger than the terrorists (expanded language capabilities are essential)
  • Understand how complex, networked, decentralized, loosely organized groups operate
  • Develop ways to exploit the seams within those networked organizations
slide30

5. Implications for the Education of Military Officers

  • The Military Officer of tomorrow must:
  • Organize strategic learning opportunities for each other & their soldiers
  • Learn from other militaries’ experiences with COIN and combating terrorism, particularly against an adversary that adopts the strategies and tactics of 4GW/AW
  • Create networks among military officers of different countries, through which they can share ideas and lessons learned
  • Develop an interagency perspective
  • Gain an understanding of local law enforcement challenges, strategies,capabilities, etc. in any deployment
  • Work with the academic community to evaluate counterterrorism operations and identify reasons behind military successes and failures
slide31

ConclusionA Partnership of The Two Professionsin Developing Better Responses to Terrorism

Academics engaged in the study of terrorism have a critical role to play in the challenges of the future global security environment.

Comparative and multidisciplinary studies of terrorism are needed.

Academic studies of military successes (and failures) in combating terrorism will be particularly important in the global struggle before us.

A strategic learning partnership between the academic and military professions is needed.

This partnership between the academic community and the military profession must be nurtured on a national, regional and global level.

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WHOLE UNITED

NATIONS

NATIONAL