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150 business models and diagrams for your powerful management presentation. Download on http://www.drawpack.com/nContent: Powerpoint, presentations, business, slides, diagrams, charts, Flow, Organization, Planning, Matrix, Positioning, Map, Composition, Distribution, Time Series, Ranking, Correlation, Pie, Segmented Colums, Sequential Composition, Histogram, Histograph, Pyramid of Ages, Cumulative Frequency, Multiple Lines, Bars, Segmented Bars, Multiple profiles, Barometer, Devision, Dots, Curve, Multiple Curves, Bubble Charts, Waterfalls

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150 Business Models...

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150 business diagrams
150 Business Diagrams

Drawpack.comoffersthese premium Business Diagramsforstudentsand professionals aroundtheglobefortheir personal useforfree.

Pleaseenjoythese Business Diagrams. Youcan send theseslidestoyour personal contactswhomightbeinterested in Business Diagrams.

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Key Words...

Break-even – Financing Life Cycle – EconomiesofScale– Elasticity– SalesCycles– Market Potential – Portfolio Matrix – Product Model – FourP’s– Push/Pull Strategy– Marketing Mix – PDCA Cycle – SWOT– Value Chain – Ansoff Matrix – BCG Matrix – 7-S Model – Core Competencies– GE Business Screen – NineCellIndustry– Risk/RewardDiagram– Porter’sFive Forces – IndustryCompetition– GenericStrategies– Geobusiness Model – Porter’s Diamond – Matrix Design – PIMS – Leavitt’s Diamond – Belbin’s Team Roles– Theory X/Y – Maslow’sHierarchy– Herzberg’sTheory– Cultural Web – Pareto Curve– CIM Concept– Value Drivers

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markets and structure of flow

Resources

Money

Resources

Resource markets

Money

Taxes,

goods

Services,

money

Services, money

Taxes

Manufacturer markets

Government markets

Consumer markets

Taxes, goods

Services

Services,

money

Taxes,

goods

Money

Money

Middlemen markets

Goods and services

Goods and services

Markets and Structure of Flow

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a company s macroenvironment

MACROENVIRONMENT

IMMEDIATE INDUSTRY &

COMPETITVE ENVIRONMENT

Technology

Legislation and regulations

Suppliers

Substitute

COMPANY

Rival Firms

Buyers

New Entrants

Population demographics

Social Values and Lifestyles

The Economy at large

A Company‘s Macroenvironment

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break even point

Value $

Sales

Profit

Break-even Point

Total

costs

Variable

costs

Fixed

costs

Current sales level

0

0

Units sold

Break-even Point

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break even chart

Dollars (in thousands)

Total revenue

1200

Target profit

1000

Total cost

800

600

Sales Volume in Units (in thousands)

Fixed cost

400

200

0

10

20

30

40

50

Break-even Chart

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break even volume

Total Revenue

35

30

Total Costs

25

$ Millions

20

15

Fixed Expenses*

10

5

0

50

100

150

200

Break-even Volume

(90,000)

Units Sold (‘000)

Profit

Loss

* Fixed Expenses = Marketing Expenses and Other Direct Expenses

Break-even Volume

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break even regions
Break-even Regions

Cash flow

Returned capital

break-even

Cumulative revenue

Cash flow breakeven

$

EVA break-even

Opportunity cost based on

capital risk assumed

P&L break-even

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financing life cycle
Financing Life Cycle

Venture

Capitalist

Investment Banks &

Banks

FFF & Angels

Early

Growth

Later

Growth

Seed Capital

& Early Stage

Enterprise

Cash Flow

Enterprise

Financing

Mezzanine

Public

Market

3rd

2nd

Initial

Public

Offering

1st

Time

Valley

of Death

Break-even

point

Emerging Growth

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demand and supply

S

D

F

G

E

Price

B

A

S

D

0

Quantity

Demand and Supply

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economies of scale

Average cost

LACs*

Output

*Long-run average costs (LACs)

Increasing returns to scale, or economies of scale

Economies of Scale

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elasticity

(total inelastic

demand)

e = 0

Price

Price

e = -

8

e < - 1

e = -

8

e = - 1

(total elastic

demand)

e > - 1

Quantity

Quantity

e = 0

P1

Price

(-)

P2

P1

(-)

(+)

Price

P2

(+)

0

0

Quantity

Quantity

Demand is elastic and expenditure increases when price falls from P1 to P2

Demand is inelastic and expenditure increases when price falls from P1 to P2

Elasticity

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inelastic and elastic demand

P’2

P2

Price

P’1

P1

Quantity Demanded per Period

(a) Inelastic demand

Quantity Demanded per Period

(b) Elastic demand

Q’1

Q’2

Q1

Q2

Inelastic and Elastic Demand

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sales and profit life cycles

Sales

Sales and Profits ($)

Profit

Introduction

Growth

Maturity

Decline

Time

Sales and Profit Life Cycles

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market potential market volume market share

Volume or value

Market potential

Market volume

Market share

Time

Market Potential, Market Volume, Market Share

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the product life cycle i

Sales over profits

Sales

Profits

Introduction Growth Maturiy Shake-out Decline

Stages over Time

The Product Life Cycle I

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the product life cycle ii
The Product Life Cycle II

Introduction

Growth

Unit

Sales

Volume

A

B

C

Maturity

Commodity or Decline

Time

Note: A = Moderate Growth, B = Commodity, C = Decline

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the life cycle portfolio matrix

THE BUSINESS UNIT‘S COMPETITIVE

POSITION

Strong

Average

Weak

Development

A

C

Growth

B

D

Competitive

shakeout

THE INDUSTRY‘S STAGE

IN THE EVOLUTIONARY

LIFE CYCLE

F

E

Maturity

Saturation

G

H

Decline

The Life Cycle Portfolio Matrix

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patterns of strategic change

Continuity Incremental Flux Global

Patterns of Strategic Change

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the whole product model
The Whole Product Model

Potential Product

Augmented Product

Expected Product

Generic Product

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the product positioning map

High quality

E

A

High price

Low price

B

C

D

Low quality

The Product-Positioning Map

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the four p s of mccarthy i

Environment

Product

Price

Environment

Environment

Place

Promotion

Environment

The Four P‘s of McCarthy I

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the four p s of mccarthy ii

High quality

Marketing

Mix

Channels

Coverage

Assortments

Locations

Inventory

Transport

Place

Product

Product variety

Quality

Design

Features

Brand name

Packaging

Sizes

Services

Warranties

Returns

Target

Market

Low quality

Promotion

Sales promotion

Advertising

Salesforce

Public relations

Direct marketing

Price

List price

Discounts

Allowances

Payment period

Credit terms

The Four P‘s of McCarthy II

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push versus pull strategy

Marketing activities

Demand

End users

Manufacturer

Intermediaries

Push Strategy

Demand

Marketing activities

Demand

Demand

End users

Manufacturer

Intermediaries

Pull Strategy

Push versus Pull Strategy

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the expanded marketing mix

Product

Price

Promotion

Customer Service

Place

People

Processes

The Expanded Marketing Mix

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the 6 step marketing plan

Situation (SWOT)

Action plan

1

firm

market

industry

competition

environment

budget allocation

product

promotion

price

distribution

Objectives

Forecasts

Marketing Plan

sales

market share

market expansion

leadership

satisfaction

quantify:

costs

sales

profits

market share

Strategy

Control

segment – target

price / quality

product positioning

differentiation

diversification

organization structure

measurement tools

check frequency

=> Corrective actions

3

2

5

4

6

The 6 – Step Marketing Plan

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the pdca cycle

Plan

Act

Do

Performance

Check

Path of continous improvement

Time

The PDCA Cycle

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enterprise management process
Enterprise Management Process

Decision

Process

Enterprise

Structure

Mission &

Strategy

Customer

Satisfaction

Value

Improvement

Enterprise

Learning

Benchmarking

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swot analysis diagram

Numerous

environmental

opportunities

Cell 3:

Supports a turnaround-

oriented strategy

Cell 1:

Supports an

aggressive strategy

Substantial

internal

strengths

Critical

internal

weaknesses

Cell 4:

Supports a

defensive strategy

Cell 2:

Supports an

diversification strategy

Major

environmental

threats

SWOT Analysis Diagram

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swot analysis i

Weaknesses

Strengths

Opportunities

Threats

SWOT Analysis I

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swot analysis ii

STRENGTHS / WEAKNESSES

Firm, Organization

OPPORTUNITIES / THREATS

Environment, Market, Industry

  • Market share
  • Key account share
  • Growth rate
  • Supply diversity
  • Influence
  • On market
  • Purchasing / selling deadline
  • New products cycles
  • Negotiation power
  • - firm suppliers
  • - customers
  • Market size
  • Key account size
  • Annual growth rate
  • Market diversity
  • Price sensitivity
  • Seasonality
  • Cycles
  • Negotiation power
  • - suppliers
  • - consumers

MARKET

COMPETITION

  • Firm competitivity
  • - Product, service
  • - Profitability, H.R., …
  • Segments invested in
  • Firm’s integration level
  • High-tech vulnerability
  • Competitor types
  • Concentration level
  • Intrants / extrants
  • Market share evolution
  • Vertical / horizontal integration
  • Technology substitution
SWOT Analysis II

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swot analysis iii

STRENGTHS / WEAKNESSES

Firm, Organization

OPPORTUNITIES / THREATS

Environment, Market, Industry

  • Firm margins
  • Economies of scale
  • Barriers
  • Production capacity level
  • Global benefits
  • Economies of scale
  • Barriers
  • Production capacity level

FINANCE / BUSINESS

  • Adaptability to change
  • Expertise / Know-How
  • Patent ownership
  • Production technology
  • Maturity / volatility
  • Complexity
  • Differentiation
  • Patents and copyrights
  • Production technology

TECHNOLOGY

SOCIO - POLITICAL

  • Reactivity / Flexibility level
  • Adaptability
  • Agressiveness
  • Working relationships
  • Attitudes / Social trends
  • Laws and regulations
  • Pressure groups
  • Trade union activities
SWOT Analysis III

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the generic value chain i

Support activities

Firm infrastructure

Human resource management

Technology development

Procurement

Margin

Inbound

logistics

Operations

Outbound

logistics

Marketing

and sales

Service

Margin

Primary activities

The Generic Value Chain I

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the generic value chain ii

FIRM INFRASTRUCTURE

HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT

TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT

PROCUREMENT

MARGIN

INBOUND

LOGISTICS

MARKETING

& SALES

OUTBOUND

LOGISTICS

OPERATIONS

SERVICE

Marketing

Management

Sales Force

Operations

Technical

Literature

Sales Force

Administration

Advertising

Promotion

The Generic Value Chain II

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the generic value chain iii

Firm infrastructure

Human resources management

Margin

Technology development

Procurement

Margin

Inbound logistics

Outbound logistics

Marketing and sales

Service

Operations

Primary Activities

The Generic Value Chain III

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the ansoff matrix i

Current Products

New Products

Market

penetration

Product

development

Current

Markets

Market

development

New

Markets

Diversification

The Ansoff Matrix I

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the ansoff matrix ii

PRODUCTS AND/OR SERVICES

Existing

New

New

product

development

Market

penetration

Existing

MARKETS

Market

development

Diversification

New

The Ansoff Matrix II

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the customer growth matrix

PRODUCTS AND/OR SERVICES

Existing

New

Customer

loyalty

Customer

extension

Existing

CUSTOMERS

Customer

acquisition

Customer

diversification

New

The Customer Growth Matrix

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product market diversification

Broad

Moderate

Product Diversification

Narrow

Market Diversification

Narrow

Moderate

Broad

Product-Market Diversification

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bcg s growth share matrix i

RELATIVE MARKET SHARE

High

Low

Question

Mark

Star

High

MARKET

GROWTH

RATE

Cash

Cow

Dog

Low

BCG’s Growth-Share Matrix I

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bcg s growth share matrix ii

RELATIVE MARKET SHARE

High

Low

Question Mark

Star

A

High

Divest

E

B

D

MARKET

GROWTH

RATE

F

C

Low

G

Divest

Dog

Cash Cows

Targeted

future position

in the corporate

portfolio

Present position

in the corporate

portfolio

BCG’s Growth-Share Matrix II

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bcg s growth share matrix iii

RELATIVE MARKET SHARE

High

1.0x

Low

0.1x

10x

Star businesses

Question marks

Low

MARKET

GROWTH

RATE

10%

Cash generating

businesses

Dog businesses

High

BCG’s Growth-Share Matrix III

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bcg s growth share matrix iv

Stars

Question Marks

22%

20%

18%

4

1

16%

Market Growth Rate

3

Dogs

14%

Cash Cows

2

12%

5

10%

8%

6

6%

7

4%

Relative Market Share

8

2%

10 x

1 x

0.1 x

BCG‘s Growth-Share Matrix IV

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the new bcg matrix

Small

Large

Fragmented

Specialization

Many

NUMBER OF APPROACHES TO ACHIEVE ADVANTAGE

Stalemate

Volume

Few

SIZE OF ADVANTAGES

The New BCG Matrix

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underlying relationship between roi and market share in the new bcg matrix

SIZE OF THE ADVANTAGE

Small

Large

Volume

Stalemate

ROI

ROI

Few

Market share

Market share

NUMBER OF WAYS

TO ACHIEVE

COMPETITVE

ADVANTAGE

Specialization

Fragmented

ROI

ROI

Many

Market share

Market share

Underlying Relationship Between ROI and Market Share in the New BCG Matrix

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mckinsey s seven s s framework

Structure

Systems

Strategy

Superordinate

Goals

Skills

Style

Staff

McKinsey‘s Seven ‚S‘s Framework

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disruption and the new 7 s s

VISION PLANNING

  • Vision for Disruption
  • Identifying and creating
  • opportunities for
  • temporary advantage
  • through understanding
  • Stakeholder Satisfaction
  • Strategic Soothsaying
  • directed at identifying new ways to serve
  • existing customers better or new
  • customers that no one else
  • serves now.
  • Capability for Disruption
  • Sustaining for momentum by
  • developing flexible capacities for
  • Speed
  • Surprise
  • that can be applied across
  • many actions to build a series
  • of temporary advantages
  • Tactics for Disruption
  • Seizing the initiative to gain
  • advantage by
  • Shifting the Rules
  • Signaling
  • Simultaneous and
  • Sequential Strategic
  • Thrusts
  • with actions that shape, mold, or
  • influence the direction or nature of
  • the competitors‘ responses.

Market

Disruption

RESOURCE PLANNING

PUNCH-COUNTERPUNCH PLANNING

Disruption and the New 7-S’s

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core competencies i

Banner

Brand

Business

Units

Core

Products

(Platforms)

Core

Competencies

Core Competencies I

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core competencies ii
Core Competencies II

Processes

Core

Competencies

Technologies

Capabilities

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core competencies iii
Core Competencies III

Low Company View High

Competency 1

Competency 5

Competency 4

Low Market View High

Competency 6

Competency 2

Competency 3

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the general electric business screen

COMPETITIVE POSITION

Weak

Strong

Average

Low

INDUSTRY

ATTRACITVENESS

Medium

High

The General Electric Business Screen

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attractiveness competitive position strategies

COMPETITIVE POSITION

Strong

Average

Weak

  • Evaluate
  • potential for
  • leadership via
  • Segmentation
  • Identify
  • weaknesses
  • Build strengths
  • Specialize
  • Seek niches
  • Consider acquisitions
  • Grow
  • Seek dominance
  • Maximize
  • investment

High

  • Identify growth segments
  • Invest strongly
  • Maintain position elsewhere
  • Identify growth segments
  • Specialize
  • Invest selectively

INDUSTRY

ATTRACTIVENESS

  • Specialize
  • Seek niches
  • Consider exit

Medium

  • Trust leader‘s statesmanship
  • Sic on competitor‘s cash generators
  • Time exit and divest
  • Maintain overall position
  • Seek cash flow
  • Invest at maintenance levels
  • Prune lines
  • Minimize investment
  • Position to divest

Low

Attractiveness/Competitive Position Strategies

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company position industry attractiveness screen

Industry attractiveness

High

Medium

Low

BUILD

BUILD

HOLD

High

Business unit strengths

HARVEST

HOLD

BUILD

Medium

HARVEST

HARVEST

HOLD

Low

Company Position/IndustryAttractiveness Screen

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a representative nine cell industry attractiveness competitive strength matrix

COMPETITIVE STRENGTHS/BUSINESS POSITION

Strong

Average

Weak

High

Business F

Business A

LONG-TERM

INDUSTRY

ATTRACTIVENESS

Medium

Business B

Business C

High priority for investment

Low

Medium priority for investment

Business E

Business D

Low priority for investment

A Representative Nine-Cell Industry Attractiveness-Competitive Strength Matrix

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ge mckinsey multifactor portfolio matrix

INDUSTRY ATTRACTIVENESS

Manage Selectively for Earnings

Invest

Invest

Manage Selectively for Earnings

Harvest or Divest

Invest

BUSINESS STRENGTH

Manage Selectively for Earnings

Harvest or Divest

Harvest or Divest

GE / McKinsey Multifactor Portfolio Matrix

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portfolio positions and defensive strategic market plans

Very Attractive

Protect

Protect

Protect or Harvest

Protect or Focus

Protect or Focus

Market Attractiveness

Harvest or Divest

Harvest or Divest

Protect or Harvest

Very Unattractive

Very Weak

Very Strong

Competitive Advantage

Portfolio Positions andDefensive Strategic Market Plans

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market attractiveness portfolio classification and strategies

BUSINESS STRENGHT

Invest / grow

Medium

Weak

Strong

5.00

Joints

Selectivity / earnings

High

MARKET ATTRACTIVENESS

Aerospace Fittings

Hydraulic Pumps

Harvest / divest

3.67

Clutches

Fuel Pumps

Medium

Flexible Diaphragms

2.33

Relief Valves

Low

(a) Classification

1.00

3.67

2.33

5.00

1.00

Market Attractiveness – Portfolio Classification and Strategies

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the risk reward diagrams
The Risk-Reward Diagrams

High

RISK

Low

High

REWARD (NPV)

Low

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contrasting characteristics of upstream and downstream companies

Supply stages in a manufaturing industry (supply chain)

Raw Primary Product Consumer

materials manufacturer Fabricator producer marketer Retail

Consumer

Supply flow

UPSTREAM

ORGANIZATIONS

Centre of gravity

of a manufacturing

industry

DOWNSTREAM

ORGANIZATIONS

Contrasting characteristics of upstream and downstream companies

Upstream

Commodity

Standardize

Maximize end users

Low-cost producers

Sales push

Line-driven organization

Process innovation

Capital budget

Capital-intensive

Technological know-how

Supply and trading/manufacturing and engineering

Downstream

Proprietary

Customize

Target end users

High margins

Marketing pull

Line/staff

Product innovation

R & D/advertising budget

People-intensive

Marketing skills

Product development/marketing

Contrasting Characteristics of Upstream and Downstream Companies

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porter s five forces i

Potential Entrants

Threat new entrants

Industry

competitors

Rivalry among

existing firms

Bargaining

power of

suppliers

Bargaining

power of

buyers

Buyers

Suppliers

Threat of substitute products

Substitutes

Porter‘s Five Forces I

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porter s five forces ii

Firms in other

industries

offering

Substitute

Products

Suppliers of

raw materials,

parts,

components or

other resource

inputs

RIVALRY

AMONG

COMPETING

SELLERS

Buyers

Potential

New Entrants

Porter‘s Five Forces II

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forces driving industry competition

Potential Entrants

Threat of

new entrants

Industry

competitors

Rivalry among

existing firms

Bargaining power

of suppliers

Bargaining power

of buyers

Suppliers

Buyers

Threat of

substitute products

or services

Substitutes

Forces Driving Industry Competition

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barriers and profitability

EXIT BARRIERS

Low

High

PROFITS=LOW

RETURNS=STABLE

PROFITS=LOW

RETURNS=RISKY

Low

ENTRY

BARRIERS

PROFITS=HIGH

RETURNS=STABLE

PROFITS=HIGH

RETURNS=RISKY

High

Barriers and Profitability

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four routes to strategic advantage

Business/Product Offered

Old/Existing New/Creative

KFS

Intensify funtional

differentiation

Aggressive

initiatives

Ask „why-why‘s“

Compete

(wisely)

Route 1

Route 3

Relative superiority

Exploit competitor‘s

weakness

Strategic degrees of

Freedom

Maximize user

benefit

Avoid

head-on

competition

Route 2

Route 4

Four Routes to Strategic Advantage

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the generic strategies i

Differentiation Cost Leadership

Focus

The Generic Strategies I

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the generic strategies ii

COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

Lower Cost

Differentiation

Broad

Target

Differentiation

Cost Leadership

COMPETITIVE

SCOPE

Narrow

Target

Differentiation Focus

Cost Focus

The Generic Strategies II

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five modified competitive strategies

TYPE OF COMPETITVE

ADVANTAGE BEING PURSUED

Lower Cost

Differentiation

Overall

Low-Cost

Leadership

Strategy

A Broad

Cross-Section

of Buyers

Broad

Differentiation

Strategy

Best-Cost

Provider

Strategy

MARKET

TARGET

A Narrow

Buyer-Segment

(or Market Niche)

Focused

Differentiation

Strategy

Focused

Low-Cost

Strategy

Five Modified Competitive Strategies

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sweeney s generic strategies

Strategic change involves enhancing

The operation‘s structure

  • Marketer
  • Emphasizes
  • Quality
  • Dependability
  • Range
  • Innovator
  • Emphasizes
  • Quality
  • Product/service
  • Performance
  • Speed
  • New product/service
  • Development

Enhanced

Strategic change involves enhancing

the operation‘s infrastructure

Customer service criteria

  • Caretaker
  • Emphasizes
  • Price/ cost
  • Dependability
  • Quality
  • Innovator
  • Emphasizes
  • Quality
  • Product/service
  • Performance
  • Flexibility
  • Speed

Basic

Traditional

Enhanced

Sweeney‘s Generic Strategies

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geobusiness model

CONTROL VARIABLES

MOTIVATION VARIABLES

CONDITIONING

VARIABLES

Geobusiness Model

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porter s diamond

FIRM STRATEGY,

STRUCTURE AND

RIVALRY

FACTOR

CONDITIONS

DEMAND

CONDITIONS

RELATED AND

SUPPORTING

INDUSTRIES

Porter‘s Diamond

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resource allocation at corporate level

PERCEIVED NEED FOR CHANGE

Low

High

Imposed

priorities

„Formula“

Low

EXTENT OF CENTRAL DIRECTION

Free

bargaining

Open

competition

High

Resource Allocation at Corporate Level

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pims competitive strategy paradigm

Market structure Strategy and tactics Performance

  • Market
  • differentiation
  • Market growth rate
  • Entry conditions
  • Unionization
  • Capital intensity
  • Purchase amount
  • Pricing
  • R & D spending
  • New product
  • introduction
  • Change in relative
  • quality and variety
  • of products/services
  • Marketing expenses
  • Distribution
  • channels
  • Relative vertical
  • integration
  • Workforce
  • productivity
  • Profitability (ROS,
  • ROI, etc.)
  • Growth
  • Cash flow
  • Value enhancement
  • Stock (share) price

Competitive position

  • Relative perceived
  • quality
  • Relative market
  • share
  • Relative capital
  • intensity
  • Relative cost
PIMS Competitive Strategy Paradigm

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international strategy options

High

Joint

venture

Foreign

subsidiary

Foreign

branch

Foreign

branch

Joint

venture

PRODUCT

DIVERSITY

Licensing/

Joint

venture

Licensing/

Export

Low

Low

High

MARKET COMPLEXITY

International Strategy Options

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the wheel of competitive strategy

Product Line

Target Market

Finance

and Control

Marketing

GOALS

Objectives for

profitability,

growth, market

share, social

responsiveness

etc.

Definition of

how the

business is

going to

compete

Sales

R & D

Distribution

Purchasing

Labor

Manufacturing

The Wheel of Competitive Strategy

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generic competitive strategies

Return on

Investment

Market Share

Generic Competitive Strategies

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the strategic triangle i

Multiple market segments

Customers

Target segments

Value

Value

Corporation

Competitors

Cost

Product/service

differentiation

The Strategic Triangle I

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the strategic triangle ii

Customers

Needs seeking benefits

at acceptable prices

Value

Value

Assets and utilization

Assets and utilization

Cost differentials

Company

Competitor

The Strategic Triangle II

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trilogy strategy culture structure

Strategy

Environment

Environment

Structure

Culture

Environment

Environment

Trilogy Strategy - Culture - Structure

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optimum degree of formal organization

Organizational

effectiveness

Degree of formal organization

Optimum Degree of Formal Organization

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the flow of formal authority
The Flow of Formal Authority

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functional divisional multidivisional structures

CEO

CEO

Controlling

R&D

Logistics

Manufacturing

Sales

Finance

Cement

Concrete

Chemicals

CEO

CEO

Europe

North America

Asia

Europe

North America

Asia

Motor

Motor

Motor

Cement

Marine

Marine

Marine

Concrete

Fire

Fire

Chemicals

Functional, Divisional, Multidivisional Structures

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a matrix design

FUNCTIONAL DEPARTMENTALIZATION

Marketing

Department

Research and

Development

Department

Purchasing

Department

Production

Department

Manager

Manager

Manager

Manager

PROJECT DEPARTMENTALIZATION

Alpha

Project

Project

Leader

E

E

E

E

Beta

Project

Project

Leader

E

E

E

E

Gamma

Project

Project

Leader

E

E

E

E

A Matrix Design

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models of virtuality

The Virtual Face

Star-alliance Model

Co-alliance Model

Value-alliance Model

Models of Virtuality

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leavitt s diamond the interaction of social forces in an organization

Task

Structure

People

Technology

Leavitt‘s Diamond: The Interaction of Social Forces in an Organization

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action centred leadership

TASK

NEEDS

INDIVIDUAL

NEEDS

GROUP

NEEDS

Action-centred Leadership

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belbin s team roles

TEAM

Shaper

Company Worker

Plant

Chairman

Finisher

Monitor-Evaluator

Team Worker

Resource-Investigator

Belbin‘s Team Roles

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group development

Stage V

Adjourning

Stage IV

Performing

Group effectiveness

Stage III

Norming

Stage II

Storming

Stage I

Forming

Time

Group Development

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theory x and theory y

Theory X

Vicious circle of theory X

following

confirms

no responsability,

no Initiative

strong rules

and control

leads to

leads to

passive work

attitude

Theory Y

following

strenghten

no responsability,

no Initiative

strong rules

and control

leads to

allow

Strenghten effect of Theory Y

passive work

attitude

Theory X and Theory Y

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maslow s hierarchy of human needs i

Self-Actualization Needs

(self-development and realization)

Esteem Needs

(self-esteem, recognition, status)

Social Needs

(sense of belonging, love)

Safety Needs

(security, protection)

Physiological Needs

(hunger, thirst)

Maslow‘s Hierarchy of Human Needs I

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maslow s hierarchy of human needs ii

GENERAL EXAMPLES

ORGANIZATIONAL EXAMPLES

Achievement

Challenging Job

Self-

Actualization

Needs

Status

Job Title

Esteem Needs

Friends in

Work Group

Friendship

Belongingness Needs

Stability

Pension Plan

Security Needs

Shelter

Base Salary

Physiological Needs

Maslow‘s Hierarchy of Human Needs II

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herzberg s motivator hygiene theory

HYGIENE FACTORS MOTIVATORS

  • SALARY
  • ADMINISTRATION
  • SUPEVISION
  • COMPANY POLICY
  • STATUS
  • WORKING
  • CONDITIONS
  • ACHIEVEMENT
  • RECOGNITION
  • RESPONSIBILITY
  • ADVANCEMENT
  • NATURE OF WORK
Herzberg‘s Motivator-Hygiene Theory

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parallels among need theories of motivation

Herzberg‘s

Two-Factor Theory

Maslow‘s

Hierarchy of Needs

Alderfer‘s

ERG Theory

Other

Key Needs

Achievement

Work Itself

Responsibility

Advancement and Growth

Self-Actualization

Needs

Growth

Needs

Need for

Achievement

Motivation

Factors

Need for

Power

Recognition

Self-Esteem

Esteem Needs

Respect of Others

Need for

Affiliation

Relatedness

Needs

Supervision

Interpersonal Relations

Belongingness Needs

Security

Company Policies

Interpersonal Security

Security Needs

Physical Security

Hygiene

Factors

Existence

Needs

Pay

Working Conditions

Physiological

Needs

Parallels Among Need Theories of Motivation

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managerial grid

Concern for people

Country Club Management (1,9)

Production is incidental

to lack of conflict and

„good fellowship“

Team management (9,9)

Production is from

integration of task

and human requirements

Dampened Pendulum (5,5)

(Middle of the road.)

Push for production but

don‘t go „all out“. Give some

but not all all: „be fair but firm“

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Impoverished Management (1,1)

Effective production is

unobtainable becaus people are

lazy, apathetic and indifferent.

Sound and mature relationships

are difficult to achieve because,

(human nature being what it is)

conflict is inevitable

Task Management (9,1)

Men are a commodity

just as machines.

A manager‘s responsibility

is to plan, direct and

control the work of those

subordinate to him

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Concern for production

Managerial Grid

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situational leadership

LEADER BEHAVIOUR

Share ideas

and facilitate

in decision-

making

Explain

decisions

and provide

opportunity

for

clarification

PARTICIPATING

SELLING

S3 S2

(Supportive Behaviour)

RELATIONSHIP BEHAVIOUR

TELLING

DELEGATING

Provide

specific

instructions

and closely

supervise

performance

Turn over

responsibility for

decisions and

implementation

S4 S1

TASK BEHAVIOUR

(Guidance)

(LOW)

(HIGH)

FOLLOWER READINESS

MODERATE

HIGH

LOW

R4

Able and Willing

or Confident

R3

Able but Unwilling

or Insecure

R2

Unable but Willing

or Confident

R1

Unable and Unwilling

or Insecure

FOLLOWER DIRECTED

LEADER DIRECTED

Situational Leadership

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cultural web

Stories

Rituals and

routines

Symbols

THE

PARADIGM

Control

systems

Power

structures

Organizational

structures

Cultural Web

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dynamics of paradigm change

The paradigm

Development of

strategy

Implementation

Corporate

Performance

if unsatisfactory

Step 1

Tighter

controls

Step 2

Reconstruct or

develop new

strategy

Step 3

Abandon paradigm

and adopt new one

Dynamics of Paradigm Change

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four organizational cultures

Role Culture

Power Culture

Task Culture

Person Culture

Four Organizational Cultures

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integrated model of strategic management

Vision, values,

and expectations

  • Strategy
  • formulation
  • Alternatives
  • Evaluation
  • and choice

Policies and

procedures

Mission

Goals,

objectives

  • Situation analysis
  • Enviromental
  • opportunities/
  • threats
  • Organizational
  • resources and
  • competences

Strategy

implementation

and planning

Strategic control

Why? What? How? Guidelines

Integrated Model of Strategic Management

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m o s t

Mission

WHAT an organization is seeking to do

Objectives

Strategy

HOW an organization will achieve it

Tactics

M-O-S-T

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network analysis pert cpa

5

6

7

8

C

2

2

4

G

4

A

5

12

12

0

0

6

D

1

1

B

4

E

5

H

3

4

4

3

F

5

KEY:

9

9

5

Activity

Critical path

Event

Earliest event time

Latest event time

Event number

Network Analysis, PERT, CPA

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the five phases of growth

collaboration

Large

coordination

"?"

delegation

red tape

SIZE OF

ORGANIZATION

direction

control

creativity

autonomy

evolution: stages of

growth

revolution: stages of

crisis

leadership

Small

Young

Mature

AGE OF ORGANIZATION

The Five Phases of Growth

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the chasm
The Chasm

The

Chasm

The

Mainstream

Market

The Early

Market

Technology

Enthusiasts

Skeptics

Visionaries

Pragmatists

Conservatives

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inventory profile

Steady and

predictable

demand (D)

Slope = demand rate

Order

quantity

Q

Average inventory = Q / 2

Inventory

level

Q / D

Time

Instantaneous deliveries at rate of D / Q per period

Inventory Profile

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economic order quantity

Total costs

Costs

Holding costs

Order costs

Economic order

quantity (EOQ)

Order quantity

Economic Order Quantity

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pareto curve for abc products

Cumulative % of total value

Class A

items

Class B

items

Class C

items

% of total number of items

Pareto Curve for ABC-Products

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cim concept

CIM

PPS

CAD/CAM

Production Programm Planning

CAD

C

A

D

Quantity Planning

CAP

Time and Capacity Planning

Place Order

CAM

Control Order

CIM-Concept

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the business process re engineering approach

Micro operations

Function 1

Function 2

Function 3

Function 4

Customer needs

Business processes

Customer needs fulfilled

Activity 1

Activity 2

Activity 3

Activity 4

Customer needs

Micro operations

Business processes

Customer needs fulfilled

The Business Process Re-engineering Approach

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total quality management

Whole operation involved

  • Quality srategy
  • Teamwork
  • Staff empowerment
  • Involves customers and suppliers

Inspection

  • Quality systems
  • Quality costing
  • Problem solving
  • Quality planning

Quality control

  • Statistical methods
  • Process performance
  • Quality standards

Quality assurance

Total quality management

  • Error detection
  • Rectification
Total Quality Management

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supply chain management

Second-tier

suppliers

First-tier

suppliers

First-tier

customers

Second-tier

customers

The

Operation

Supply side

Demand side

Purchasing and supply

management

Physical distribution

management

Logistics

Materials management

Supply chain management

Supply Chain Management

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internal rate of return irr

Main methods of capital expenditure appraisal

Return on Investment ROI

Pay Back

Discounted Cash Flow (DCF)

Net Present Value (NPV)

Internal Rate of Return (IRR)

Internal Rate of Return (IRR)

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net present value npv

Main methods of capital expenditure appraisal

Discounted CashFlow (DCF)

Return on Investment (ROI)

Pay Back

Internal Rate of Return (IRR)

Net Present Value (NPV)

Net Present Value (NPV)

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variance analysis

Profit Variance

Total Cost Variance

Total Sales Variance

Materials

Labour

Variable

Fixed

Sales

Sales

Price

Variance

Overhead

Overhead

Volume

Price

Variance

Variance

Variance

Variance

Variance

Materials

Usage

Variance

Wage

Rate

Variance

Labour

Efficiency

Variance

Materials

Price

Variance

Variance Analysis

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the link between the balance sheets and the income statement

Balance Sheet

December 31, 2001

Income Statement

Year 2002

Balance Sheet

December 31, 2002

Assets

$170

Liabilities

$100

Revenues

$480

Expenses

$469.8

Assets

$190

Liabilities

$113

Owner‘s equity

$70

Owner‘s equity

$77

Net Profit

$10.2

Retained earnings

$7

Dividends

$3.2

The Link Between the Balance Sheets and the Income Statement

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working capital

Simple cycle of operations

Cash

Raw materials

inventory

Receivables

Finished goods

inventory

Working Capital

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financial strategy framework
Financial Strategy Framework

Due dilligence process

Investor Investment strategy

Alternative Investments

Time to close deal

Risk/Reward Space

Financial Strategy

Opportunity

Debt

Entrepreneurial concerns

Sources and Deal

Structure

Time to out of cash

Equity

Future alternatives

Other

Burn Rate

Financial

Requirements

Business Strategy

Operating

Requirements

Working Capital

Market Strategy

Technological Strategy

Asset Requirement

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investor perceived risk return space
Investor Perceived Risk-Return Space

Angels

High

FFF

VCs

Entrepreneur

PERCEIVED

RETURN

Moderate

Realistic

Investors

Banks

Low

Low

Moderate

High

PERCEIVED RISK

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du pont scheme

Return on equity

Earnings after tax

Owner‘s equity

ROE =

Financial leverage multiplier

Tax effects

Return on invested capital

Earnings before interest and tax

Invested capital

ROIC =

Operating profit margin

Capital turnover

Financial structure ratio

Financial cost ratio

Tax effect ratio

Earnings before interest and tax

Sales

Sales

Invested capital

Invested capital

Owner‘s equity

Earnings before tax

Earnings before interest and tax

Earnings after tax

Earnings before tax

Sales

Invested capital

Owner‘s equity

Cost of debt

Tax rate

Operating costs

Cash

Working Capital

requirement

Fixed assets

Du Pont Scheme

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the drivers of value creation

EBIT

Sales

Operating margin =

EBIT

Invested capital

(pretax ROIC)

Sales

Invested capital

Capital turnover =

Expected aftertax

ROIC

Tax effect = (1 – Taxe rate)

Return spread

(ROIC – WACC)

Percent of

debt financing

Market Value Added (MVA)

If the present value of the future stream of

expected return spreads is positive, MVA is

positive and the higher the growth, the more

value created.

If the present value of the future stream of

expected return spreads is negative, MVA is

negative and the higher the growth, the more

value destroyed.

Aftertax cost of debt

Weighted average

cost of capital

WACC

Estimated cost of equity

Percent of

equity financing

Economic, political, and

social environments

Market structure

Sustainability

of growth

Competitive advantages and

core competencies

The Drivers of Value Creation

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business design process

Economics

What are

the key

assumptions

About

customers

and

economics?

What‘s

important to

customers?

How can

profit be

made?

What

dimensions

matter the

most?

What are my

choices

now? In the

future?

Changing

Customer

Priorities

Technology

Which

ones

are best?

Are the best

choices

internally

consistens

integratable?

What‘s my

best

business

design?

How long

will this

design be

valid?

How can I

prepare

for

ongoing

redesign?

Business Design Process

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the company center of gravity

The Entrepreneurial Phase The Growth Phase The Success Phase

The Center

of Gravity

The Center

of Gravity

The

center

of

gravity

The

Customers

The

Company

The

Customers

The

Customers

The

Company

The

Company

The Company Center of Gravity

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the traditional value chain

The Traditional Value Chain

Start with Assets, Core Competencies

Assets/

Core

Competencies

Inputs, Raw

Material

Product/

Service

Offering

Channels

The

Customer

The Modern Value Chain

Start with the Customer

The

Customer

Channels

Offering

Inputs, Raw

Material

Assets/

Core

Competencies

The Traditional Value Chain

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the modern value chain

Truly Understanding the Customer

Purchase Criteria

Customer Anger

Customer

Priorities

Channels

Offering

Inputs, Raw

Material

Assets/

Core

Competencies

Preferences

Power

Decision-Making Process

Purchase Occasion

Buyer Behavior

Functional Needs

Systems Economics

The Modern Value Chain

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customer solutions profit

Profit

0

Customer Solutions Profit

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product pyramid profit

Price

Volume

Product Pyramid Profit

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multicomponent profit

Base Business

Other Components

Multicomponent Profit

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switchboard profit

Buyers

Sellers

Switchboard Profit

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time profit

$/Unit

Cost

Price

Time

Time Profit

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blockbuster profit

$/Project

Revenue

Cost

Project Type

Blockbuster Profit

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profit multiplier model

Other Forms

Key Asset

Profit Multiplier Model

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entrepreneurial profit

Base

Business

Spin-Outs

Entrepreneurial Profit

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specialization profit

Return on Sales

Generalist Specialist

Specialization Profit

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installed base profit

Profit Margin

Hardware/Base

Product

Consumables/

Follow-on Product

Installed Base Profit

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de facto standard profit

Profit Margin

Market Share

De Facto Standard Profit

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brand profit

Price/Unit

Market

Price

Brand

Price

Brand Profit

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specialty product profit

100 %

S

C

Revenue

S

C

Five Years

Ago

Today

Specialty Product Profit

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local leadership profit

Profitability by Region

0

Local Market Share

Local Leadership Profit

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transaction scale profit

$/Unit

Revenue

Cost

Size of Transaction

Transaction Scale Profit

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value chain position profit
Value Chain Position Profit

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cycle profit

Price

$/Unit

Cost

Utilization

Cycle Profit

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after sale profit

Base

Product

Follow-on

Products/Services

After-Sale Profit

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new product profit

Time

New Product Profit

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relative market share profit

Return on Sales

Relative Market Share

Relative Market Share Profit

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experience curve profit

Cost/Unit

Cumulative Experience

Experience Curve Profit

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low cost business design profit

$/Unit

Conventional

Business

Design

Low Cost

Business

Design

Low-Cost Business Design Profit

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ge s business design sell the solution not just the box

Sell the Box, or ...

Product

The Profit Zone

... Sell the Whole Solution

Product

Options

Accessories

Financing

Services

GE's Business Design:„Sell the Solution, Not Just the Box“

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the smh product pyramid

The Profit Zone

Blancpain

Omega, Longines,

Rado

Tissot, Certina, Mido, Pierre Balmain,

Hamilton, Calvin Klein

Swatch, Flik Flak

Endura

Lanco

The SMH Product Pyramid

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coca cola s business design manage the value chain

1980

Distribution

Consumer

Grocery

Logistics

Bottling

Syrup

Coca-Cola

Brand

Fountain

Vending

1996

Distribution

Consumer

Grocery

Logistics

Bottling

Syrup

The Profit Zone

Coca-Cola

Mega Brand

Fountain

Coca-Cola, diet Coca-

Cola, Caff. Free, diet

Caff. Free, Cherry,

Diet Cherry

Vending

Coca-Cola‘s participation, influence

no participation

Coca-Cola's Business Design:Manage the Value Chain

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the charles schwab switchboard

Mutual Fund

Companies

Investors

Mutual Fund

Companies

Investors

The Profit Zone

Schwab

One Source

The Charles Schwab "Switchboard"

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intel s business design two steps ahead

The Profit

Zone

Intel

$/Unit

AMD

Cost

Price

Q2 Q4 Q6 Q8 Q10

Quarters Post-Launch

Intel's Business Design: „Two Steps Ahead“

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disney s business design reinvention

The Profit Zone

The Value Capture

Cruises

Publishing

Videocassette

Hotels

Television

Retail

Merchandise

Theme Parks

Music

Animated and Live-Action Films

Disney‘s Business Design Reinvention

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the thermo electron spin out business design

The

Profit Zone

Thermo

Spectra

Thermo

Instrument

Systems

Thermo

Optek

Thermo

Voltek

Thermo-Electron

Thermedics

Thermo

Sentron

Thermolase

Thermo

Trex

Trex

Medical

The Thermo-Electron"Spin-Out“ Business Design

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microsoft s business design create the standard

OEMs

Customers

The Profit Zone

Microsoft

Applications

Windows

Applications

Developers

Microsoft's Business Design:Create-the-Standard

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