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Chapter 14. Managing and Troubleshooting Windows 2000. You Will Learn…. About the Windows NT/2000/XP boot process How to troubleshoot the Windows 2000 boot process How to use maintenance and troubleshooting tools to support Windows 2000. Understanding the Windows NT/ 2000/XP Boot Process.

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Chapter 14 l.jpg

Chapter 14

Managing and Troubleshooting Windows 2000


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You Will Learn…

  • About the Windows NT/2000/XP boot process

  • How to troubleshoot the Windows 2000 boot process

  • How to use maintenance and troubleshooting tools to support Windows 2000

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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Understanding the Windows NT/ 2000/XP Boot Process

  • BIOS executes POST

  • BIO executes the MBR program

  • MBR program executes OS boot program

  • Boot program executes Ntldr

  • Ntldr changes processor mode and loads a file system

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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Understanding the Windows NT/ 2000/XP Boot Process (continued)

  • Ntldr reads and loads the boot loader menu

  • Ntldr uses Ntdetect.com

  • Ntldr loads the OS and device drivers

  • Ntldr passes control to Ntoskrnl.exe

  • An operating system other thanWindows NT/2000/XP is chosen

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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The Windows NT/2000/XP Boot Process

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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The Windows NT/2000/XP Boot Process (continued)

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Files Needed to BootWindows NT/2000/XP

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Customizing the Windows NT/ 2000/XP Boot Process

  • Use boot.ini file, which has two main sections

    • [boot loader]

    • [operating system]

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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Changing Boot.ini Settings

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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Changing Boot.ini Settings (continued)

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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Troubleshooting the Windows 2000 Boot Process

  • Try the simple things first

  • Determine at what point in the process the system fails

  • Use troubleshooting tools

    • Advanced Options menu

    • Recovery Console

    • Emergency repair disk

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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Advanced Options Menu

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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Recovery Console

  • Use it when OS does not start properly or hangs during the load

  • Allows repair of damaged registry, system files, or file system on the hard drive

  • A command-driven OS that does not use a GUI;

    • Allows access to FAT16, FAT32, and NTFS file systems

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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Using Recovery Console

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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Using Recovery Console (continued)

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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Commands Available from Recovery Console

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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Commands Available from Recovery Console (continued)

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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Commands Available from Recovery Console (continued)

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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Using the Recovery Console to Restore the Registry

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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Using the Recovery Console to Restore the Registry (continued)

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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Emergency Repair Process:The Last Resort

  • Restores system to state it was in immediately after the Windows 2000 installation

  • All changes since installation are lost

  • Uses an Emergency Repair Disk (ERD)

    • Contains information about current installation, but not a copy of the registry

    • Points to a folder on the hard drive where the registry was backed up at installation

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Emergency Repair Process (continued)

  • Use the Backup window to back up the registry and create an emergency repair disk

  • Create an ERD and back up the registry to the hard drive

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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Tools for Maintenance and Troubleshooting

  • Backup tool

  • Windows 2000 support tools (eg, Dependency Walker)

  • Windows File Protection (WFP)

  • Computer Management window

  • Disk Management tool

  • Microsoft Management Console (MMC)

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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Tools for Maintenance and Troubleshooting (continued)

  • Event Viewer

  • Task Manager

  • System Monitor

  • Dr. Watson and memory dumps

  • Windows Update

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Windows Support Tools

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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Windows File Protection

  • Protects system files (.sys, .dll, .ttf, .ocs, or .exe) from modification

  • Two tools

    • Background process that notifies WFP when a protected file is modified

    • SFC (System File Checker)

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Using SFC

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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Computer Management Window

  • Consolidates several administrative tools used to:

    • Monitor problems with hardware, software, security

    • Share folders

    • View device configurations

    • Add new device drivers

    • Start and stop services

    • Manage server applications

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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Disk Management Tool

  • Found in Computer Management console

  • Used to create partitions on basic disks or volumes on dynamic disks and to convert a basic disk to a dynamic disk

  • Graphical, user-friendly

  • Replaces Fdisk in older Windows OSs

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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Using Disk Management

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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Microsoft Management Console

  • Console

    • Combination of several administrative tools into a single window (eg, Computer Management, Recovery Console)

  • Snap-ins

    • Individual tools within the console (eg, Event Viewer, System Information)

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Available Snap-ins for MMC

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Available Snap-ins for MMC (continued)

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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Creating a Customized Console

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Event Viewer

  • Logs

    • Application log

    • Security log

    • System log

  • Types of events recorded in system and application logs

    • Information events

    • Warning events

    • Error events

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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Event Viewer (continued)

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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Ways to Filter Events

  • Use log properties

  • Set a size limit and specify what is to happen when log reaches its limit

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Filtering Events with Log Properties

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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Performance Monitoring and Optimization

  • Analyze data provided by monitoring tools such as Task Manager and System Monitor

  • Determine areas in which performance is below baseline

  • Identify and take steps to correct the problem

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Principles for Optimizing Performance

  • Establish a baseline

  • If you add RAM, increase size of paging file

  • Consider upgrading more than one component

  • Applications are assigned priority level, which determines position in queue for CPU resources

  • In general, upgrading an existing PC is recommended

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Task Manager

  • Allows you to view:

    • Applications and processes running on the computer

    • Performance information for processor and memory

  • Ways to access

    • Ctrl+Alt+Delete

    • Right-click blank area on taskbar; select Task Manager on shortcut menu

    • Ctrl+Shift+Esc

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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Task Manager Tabs

  • Applications

    • Running or Not Responding

  • Processes

    • Lists system services and other processes associated with applications, with how much CPU time and memory the process uses

  • Performance

    • Totals

    • Physical Memory

    • Commit Charge

    • Kernel Memory

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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Performance Tab in Task Manager

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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System Monitor

  • Provides more system performance detail than Task Manager

  • Components

    • Objects (hardware or software system components; eg, Memory, Paging File, Processor, Physical Disk)

    • Instances (multiples of objects)

    • Counters (show information on specific characteristics of an object)

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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Using System Monitor

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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Using System Monitor (continued)

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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Dr. Watson and Memory Dumps

  • Dr. Watson

    • Debugs errors in applications by recording error events to a log file (Drwtsn32.log) when illegal operations occur

  • Memory dump

    • Saves contents of memory at the time an error halted the system to a dump file

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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Windows Update

  • Uses Microsoft Web site to download patches, fixes, and updates to Microsoft OSs and applications

  • Uses ActiveX to scan the system, find device drivers and system files, and compare these files to those on the Windows Update server;

    • Offers option of selecting files for download

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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Summary

  • Details of Windows NT/2000/XP boot process

  • How to troubleshoot Windows 2000 boot process

  • Supporting and troubleshooting Windows 2000 after it boots, including problems you might have with system errors and performance

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition