From War to Cold War 2. An "Old Soldier" in War and Cold War--Douglas MacArthur History 203 April 25, 2007
Scopes paper due April 30 Midterm Exam May 7 • Scopes trial papers due Mon., April 30 at class time. Instructions at: http://www.uoregon.edu/~dapope/203scopes.htm • Midterm exam essay questions and instructions are on the web at www.uoregon.edu/~dapope/203midtermessays--sp07.htm
Some Websites on Cold War Origins and on Douglas MacArthur • Cold War International History Project • CNN Cold War History Series website • Documents relating to the decision to drop the atomic bomb • Hiroshima archive (from Lewis and Clark College) • Cold War Policies 1945-1991 (timeline with links) • PBS “American Experience” show on MacArthur • Art and culture of occupied Japan online exhibit • George Kennan website
A War Economy • War as Depression Cure? • Growth of “Big Government” • Government spending and taxing • A “Military-Industrial Complex” • A Changing Labor Force • Fair Employment Practices Commission—Racial discrimination banned on Federal contracts • Women workers— “Rosie the Riveter” and others
Statistics on the War Economy FEDERAL BUDGET AND WORLD WAR II RevenueExpenditure • 1939 $ 6.6 billion $ 9.4 billion • 1945 50.2 billion 95.2 billion UNEMPLOYMENT • 1940 14.1 % • 1944 1.2 % NATIONAL DEBT AS PERCENT OF TOTAL OUTPUT • 1940 43 % • 1945 123 % PROPORTION OF WOMEN IN PAID LABOR FORCE • 1940 19.4 % • 1945 36.3 %
Ending the Hot War, 1945--Europe • Yalta Conference—February 1945 • Victory in Europe, May 8 • “Spheres of Influence” in Europe? • At right: Churchill, FDR and Stalin at Yalta
Ending the Pacific War and the Decision to Drop the Bomb • “Island Hopping” and the Firebombing of Tokyo, March 1945 • An American invasion of mainland Japan— • How costly would it be? • Would it be necessary? • The question of unconditional surrender and the emperor The firebombing of Tokyo—perhaps 100,000 killed, 1,000,000 left homeless in a six-hour period.
The Bomb and the Cold War • The Manhattan Project • Los Alamos, NM • Bomb test—Trinity site, near Alamogordo, NM • July 16, 1945 • Truman at Potsdam Conference with Stalin and British prime minister • From Truman’s memoirs: “On July 24 I casually mentioned to Stalin that we had a new weapon of unusual destructive force. The Russian Premier showed no special interest. All he said was he was glad to hear it and hoped we would make "good use of it against the Japanese."
The Bomb and the Cold War • Atomic Bombing of Hiroshima (August 6) and Nagasaki (August 8): Why? • Avoid mainland invasion? • Keep USSR out of Asian war and limit its influence? • Was there actually a decision to use the bomb? Truman on August 9: "Having found the bomb we have used it.”
Japanese Surrender VJ day kiss, New York, Aug. 14, 1945; formal surrender on Battleship Missouri, Sept. 1, 1945.
American Power and the Cold War • U.S. dominance after World War II • The Bomb • Economic Might Truman’s Confrontational Style: Truman criticizes Soviet Foreign Minister Molotov: "I have never been talked to like that in my life," and Truman said, "Carry out your agreements and you won't be talked to like that." Truman then walked out of the room. • Postwar Soviet Union • Great Power Destiny? • Communist Expansionism? • Defensive Nationalism?
The Origins of Containment • George F. Kennan— “The Sources of Soviet Conduct” • Truman Doctrine, March 1947: “I believe that it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures.”
The Marshall Plan • Secretary of State George C. Marshall, June 1947: "Europe's requirements are so much greater than her present ability to pay that she must have substantial additional help or face economic, social, and political deterioration of a very grave character."
Cold War: Divided Europe, Nuclear World • NATO (1949) and the Warsaw Pact (1955) • Soviet Atomic Bomb, 1949 • Hydrogen Bombs—U.S. 1952, USSR 1953 Top: NATO treaty signed in Washington, D.C., 1949 Bottom: Soviet nuclear weapons—at right, a model like the first Russian atomic bomb, 1949
MacArthur: Making a Military Career • A Hero’s Son • Douglas MacArthur and the peacetime army • FDR calls MacArthur “one of the two most dangerous men in America” • Military command in the Philippines • At this site, there’s an interactive map of MacArthur’s travels around the world throughout his life
MacArthur and World War II • Japanese attack on the Philippines, December 8, 1941 • MacArthur to Australia, March 1942: “I shall return.” • Repression and resistance in the Philippines • MacArthur returns—Battle of Leyte, 1944
MacArthur after leaving the Philippines, 1942 • “The President of the United States ordered me to break through the Japanese lines and proceed from Corregidor to Australia for the purpose, as I understand it, of organizing the American offensive against Japan, a primary objective of which is the relief of the Philippines. I came through and I shall return.”
MacArthur and Occupied Japan • MacArthur as reformer: • Ending emperor worship • Land reform • Breaking up the zaibatsu • Women gain right to vote • Demilitarizing Japan
Advertisement 1945: "Let's All Make a Bright Future for Japan: Sumitomo Bank"
MacArthur and the Korean War • Korea from Japanese colony to divided country • Communist North Korea attacks South Korea, June 1950 • MacArthur lands at Inchon, pushes N. Korea back, near the Yalu River border with China • Nov. 1950—China enters the war, US and South Korea retreat • Early 1951: Military situation stabilizes • For a series of Korean war maps, see http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/macarthur/maps/korea.html
MacArthur and Truman • MacArthur objects to Truman’s interest in a negotiated truce, wants to pursue more aggressive measures • April 1951: Truman removes MacArthur from his command • MacArthur’s speech to Congress: “Old Soldiers Never Die” • An “Asia First” strategy • “No substitute for victory” • Civilian-Military relations in a democracy