Wanda Opland Health Careers JAMES VALLEY VOCATIONAL TECHNICAL CENTER First Aid
Artificial Respirations • Brain Damage • Airway • Assess Breathing • Respirations • Adult • Child / Infant
Bleeding • Primary technique to stop bleeding • Do you remove a soaked dressing? • Pressure Dressing
Elevation • Pressure Points • Rt. and Lt. Brachial Artery • Rt. and Lt. Femoral Artery
Pressure on Brachial Artery • Put Thumb on outside of arm, fingers on inside of middle upper arm and Squeeze….
Pressure on Femoral Artery • Place heel of hand directly over femoral artery (located between upper leg and pubic area), lean forward keeping arm straight and apply pressure.
Tourniquet • USE ONLY AS A LAST RESORT !!!!!!!!! • Once applied Never loosen • Get Help at Once!!
Related Bleeding Emergencies • Internal Bleeding • Blood from rectum, mouth, vagina or blood in urine • Bruise or contusion • Rapid pulse • Cool and/or moist skin • Painful, tender or hardspot on abdomen
Penetrating Object • DO NOT REMOVE! • Severed Body Part • Control bleeding • Do Not scrub body part • Wrap in clean cloth, place in sealed plastic bag and place in bag containing ice
Poisoning • In case of Poisoning, the first thing to be done…. • Why… • 80% of poison victims under 5y/o
Information for Poison Control Center • Age • Weight • Amount • Type • How long ago ingested
Should the empty container be kept? • Only safe way to induce vomiting • Labeled directions for poisoning
Poisoning By Fumes • Move victim into Fresh Air
Prevention • Beware: poisons can be inhaled, Swallowed and absorbed by the skin - Chemicals - Plants - Fumes • Best First Aid is Prevention
Shock • A serious weakening of the body causes by the loss of blood pressure or sudden injury • Sudden upset of mental or emotional balance
Symptoms • Rapid, weak pulse • General Weakness • Irregular breathing • Cold, pale, clammy skin
As Victim Deteriates • Eyes appear vacant, sunken • Pupils may dilate • Listless ** May die from Shock**
Treatment for Shock • Positioning and why… • Positioning if spinal cord injury suspected…
Positioning with head injury… • Positioning if unconscious… • Blankets… • No Fluids
Classified according to depth or degree of skin damage. • First Degree Burn • Second Degree Burn • Third Degree Burn
First Degree Burn • Cause: overexposure to sun • Light contact with hot objects • Scalding by hot water or steam
Signs of First Degree Burns • Erythema • Mild Swelling & Pain • Rapid Healing
First Aid: First Degree Burns • Cold Water NOT Ice Water • Burn Lotion or Spray • Dark Vinegar • NO BUTTER OR OINTMENTS
Second Degree Burns • Results from a very deep sunburn • Contact with hot liquids • Flash burns from gasoline etc.
Signs of Second Degree Burns • Erythema Swelling • Blisters Pain • Open Wounds • Wet appearance due to loss of plasma through damaged skin layers.
First Aid: Second Degree Burns • Immerse in cold water NOT ice water • Apply cool conpresses • Blot dry & apply sterile guaze or clean cloth for protection • DO NOT break blisters or remove tissue
DO NOT use an antiseptic preparation, ointment, spray or home remedy on a severe burn. • If arm or legs are affected, keep them elevated.
Third Degree Burns • Caused by flame, ingnited clothing, immersion in hot water, contact with hot objects, or electricity.
Signs of Third Degree Burns • White or Charred appearance • Deep tissue destruction • Complete loss of all skin layers • Nerve Damage • Pain or No Pain
First Aid: Third Degree Burns • DO NOT remove pieces of adhered particles of charred clothing. • Cover burn with thick, sterile or freshly laundered cloth. • If hands or legs involved, elevate.
Face burns to sit up or prop them up. • DO NOT immerse or apply ice water to burn area. • Transport ASAP. • DO NOT apply ointment, commercial preparations, grease, or other home remedies.
Chemical Burns of the Skin • First Aid: • Remove clothing • Flush with water ASAP for 15 – 20 minutes • Get name / source of Chemical • Seek Medical Attention ASAP
Burns of the Eyes • First Aid: • Flush face, eyelid, & eye for 15 – 20 minutes ASAP • Avoid rubbing eye • Cover eye • Seek medical attention ASAP
Fractures • A break or crack in a bone • Cause: most commonly a MVA or: • Accident related to a fall & recreational and sports activities
Signs and Symptoms • May hear a bone snap • Pain & tenderness, difficulty moving injured body part • Report of grating sensation • Shortening of injured leg/arm • Unusual angle or position of body part
First Aid • Prevent motion to injured part or adjacent joints (immobilize) • Apply splint • Elevate involved extremity
Splinting a Fracture • Splint body part in position as found • Prevent injured area from moving • Check for circulation before and after splinting
Head, Neck or Spinal Injury • Symptoms: • Change in consciousness • Difficulty breathing • Impaired vision • Tingling or numbness in hands, fingers, feet and/or toes • Loss of balance • Headache & vomiting
First Aid • Keep lying down • Leave in position found in • Call EMS • If you do need to move, logroll & support head and neck
Sprains • R. I.C.E. • R = rest • I = ice • C = compress • E = elevate
Allergic Reaction • Anaphylaxis – result of: • Insect bite or bee sting • Severe allergic reaction to something ingested • First Aid: • Epinephrine and EMS
Diabetic • Too much or too little sugar in the body • Symptoms: cool clammy skin, weak dizzy • First Aid: give sugar in form of candy or drink
Frozen Body Parts • Do not attempt to rewarm if a chance the body part may freeze again • Needs to be thawed gradually • Treat as though body part may break
Heat Related Illness • Heat Cramps • Heat Exhaustion • Heat Stroke
Heat Cramps • Symptoms: Painful muscle cramps Moist-cool skin - Heavy sweating • First Aid: Move to cool place Massage and stretch muscles
Heat Exhaustion • Symptoms: Cold, clammy skin – Weak pulse Heavy sweating – Shallow breathing Nausea – Dizziness – Weakness • First Aid: Move to cool place – cool by fanning Elevate legs - Apply cool packs
Heat Stroke • Symptoms: Hot, dry, red skin - Confusion or unconsciousness Little or No sweating – Fast weak pulse • First Aid: Move to cool place – Call EMS Life Threatening
Dental Emergencies • Knocked out tooth: • Place in container of whole milk if tooth can be replaced in 30 min. • Rinse tooth in cold water and place back in socket, then go to dentist ASAP:
Nose Bleeds • Position victim in a sitting position • Keep head tilted slightly forward • Pinch both nostrils