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Wanda Opland Health Careers JAMES VALLEY VOCATIONAL TECHNICAL CENTER First Aid Artificial Respirations Brain Damage Airway Assess Breathing Respirations Adult Child / Infant Bleeding Primary technique to stop bleeding Do you remove a soaked dressing? Pressure Dressing Elevation

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First Aid

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wanda opland health careers james valley vocational technical center
Wanda Opland

Health Careers


First Aid

artificial respirations
Artificial Respirations
  • Brain Damage
  • Airway
  • Assess Breathing
  • Respirations
    • Adult
    • Child / Infant
  • Primary technique to stop bleeding
  • Do you remove a soaked dressing?
  • Pressure Dressing
  • Pressure Points
    • Rt. and Lt. Brachial Artery
    • Rt. and Lt. Femoral Artery
pressure on brachial artery
Pressure on Brachial Artery
  • Put Thumb on outside of arm, fingers on inside of middle upper arm and Squeeze….
pressure on femoral artery
Pressure on Femoral Artery
  • Place heel of hand directly over femoral artery (located between upper leg and pubic area), lean forward keeping arm straight and apply pressure.
  • Once applied Never loosen
  • Get Help at Once!!
related bleeding emergencies
Related Bleeding Emergencies
  • Internal Bleeding
    • Blood from rectum, mouth, vagina or blood in urine
    • Bruise or contusion
    • Rapid pulse
    • Cool and/or moist skin
    • Painful, tender or hardspot on abdomen
Penetrating Object
  • Severed Body Part
    • Control bleeding
    • Do Not scrub body part
    • Wrap in clean cloth, place in sealed plastic bag and place in bag containing ice
  • In case of Poisoning, the first thing to be done….
  • Why…
  • 80% of poison victims under 5y/o
information for poison control center
Information for Poison Control Center
  • Age
  • Weight
  • Amount
  • Type
  • How long ago ingested
Should the empty container be kept?
  • Only safe way to induce vomiting
  • Labeled directions for poisoning
poisoning by fumes
Poisoning By Fumes
  • Move victim into Fresh Air
  • Beware: poisons can be inhaled,

Swallowed and absorbed by the skin

- Chemicals

- Plants

- Fumes

  • Best First Aid is Prevention
  • A serious weakening of the body causes by the loss of blood pressure or sudden injury
  • Sudden upset of mental or emotional balance
  • Rapid, weak pulse
  • General Weakness
  • Irregular breathing
  • Cold, pale, clammy skin
as victim deteriates
As Victim Deteriates
  • Eyes appear vacant, sunken
  • Pupils may dilate
  • Listless

** May die from Shock**

treatment for shock
Treatment for Shock
  • Positioning and why…
  • Positioning if spinal cord injury suspected…
Positioning with head injury…
  • Positioning if unconscious…
  • Blankets…
  • No Fluids
Classified according to depth or degree of skin damage.
  • First Degree Burn
  • Second Degree Burn
  • Third Degree Burn
first degree burn
First Degree Burn
  • Cause: overexposure to sun
    • Light contact with hot objects
    • Scalding by hot water or steam
signs of first degree burns
Signs of First Degree Burns
  • Erythema
  • Mild Swelling & Pain
  • Rapid Healing
first aid first degree burns
First Aid: First Degree Burns
  • Cold Water NOT Ice Water
  • Burn Lotion or Spray
  • Dark Vinegar
second degree burns
Second Degree Burns
  • Results from a very deep sunburn
  • Contact with hot liquids
  • Flash burns from gasoline etc.
signs of second degree burns
Signs of Second Degree Burns
  • Erythema Swelling
  • Blisters Pain
  • Open Wounds
  • Wet appearance due to loss of plasma through damaged skin layers.
first aid second degree burns
First Aid: Second Degree Burns
  • Immerse in cold water NOT ice water
  • Apply cool conpresses
  • Blot dry & apply sterile guaze or clean cloth for protection
  • DO NOT break blisters or remove tissue
DO NOT use an antiseptic preparation, ointment, spray or home remedy on a severe burn.
  • If arm or legs are affected, keep them elevated.
third degree burns
Third Degree Burns
  • Caused by flame, ingnited clothing, immersion in hot water, contact with hot objects, or electricity.
signs of third degree burns
Signs of Third Degree Burns
  • White or Charred appearance
  • Deep tissue destruction
  • Complete loss of all skin layers
  • Nerve Damage
  • Pain or No Pain
first aid third degree burns
First Aid: Third Degree Burns
  • DO NOT remove pieces of adhered particles of charred clothing.
  • Cover burn with thick, sterile or freshly laundered cloth.
  • If hands or legs involved, elevate.
Face burns to sit up or prop them up.
  • DO NOT immerse or apply ice water to burn area.
  • Transport ASAP.
  • DO NOT apply ointment, commercial preparations, grease, or other home remedies.
chemical burns of the skin
Chemical Burns of the Skin
  • First Aid:
    • Remove clothing
    • Flush with water ASAP for 15 – 20 minutes
    • Get name / source of Chemical
    • Seek Medical Attention ASAP
burns of the eyes
Burns of the Eyes
  • First Aid:
    • Flush face, eyelid, & eye for 15 – 20 minutes ASAP
    • Avoid rubbing eye
    • Cover eye
    • Seek medical attention ASAP
  • A break or crack in a bone
  • Cause: most commonly a MVA or:
    • Accident related to a fall & recreational and sports activities
signs and symptoms
Signs and Symptoms
  • May hear a bone snap
  • Pain & tenderness, difficulty moving injured body part
  • Report of grating sensation
  • Shortening of injured leg/arm
  • Unusual angle or position of body part
first aid
First Aid
  • Prevent motion to injured part or adjacent joints


  • Apply splint
  • Elevate involved extremity
splinting a fracture
Splinting a Fracture
  • Splint body part in position as found
  • Prevent injured area from moving
  • Check for circulation before and after splinting
head neck or spinal injury
Head, Neck or Spinal Injury
  • Symptoms:
    • Change in consciousness
    • Difficulty breathing
    • Impaired vision
    • Tingling or numbness in hands, fingers, feet and/or toes
    • Loss of balance
    • Headache & vomiting
first aid39
First Aid
  • Keep lying down
  • Leave in position found in
  • Call EMS
  • If you do need to move, logroll & support head and neck
  • R. I.C.E.
  • R = rest
  • I = ice
  • C = compress
  • E = elevate
allergic reaction
Allergic Reaction
  • Anaphylaxis – result of:
    • Insect bite or bee sting
    • Severe allergic reaction to something ingested
  • First Aid:
    • Epinephrine and EMS
  • Too much or too little sugar in the body
    • Symptoms: cool clammy skin, weak dizzy
    • First Aid: give sugar in form of candy or drink
frozen body parts
Frozen Body Parts
  • Do not attempt to rewarm if a chance the body part may freeze again
  • Needs to be thawed gradually
  • Treat as though body part may break
heat related illness
Heat Related Illness
  • Heat Cramps
  • Heat Exhaustion
  • Heat Stroke
heat cramps
Heat Cramps
  • Symptoms:

Painful muscle cramps

Moist-cool skin - Heavy sweating

  • First Aid:

Move to cool place

Massage and stretch muscles

heat exhaustion
Heat Exhaustion
  • Symptoms:

Cold, clammy skin – Weak pulse

Heavy sweating – Shallow breathing

Nausea – Dizziness – Weakness

  • First Aid:

Move to cool place – cool by fanning

Elevate legs - Apply cool packs

heat stroke
Heat Stroke
  • Symptoms:

Hot, dry, red skin - Confusion or unconsciousness

Little or No sweating – Fast weak pulse

  • First Aid:

Move to cool place – Call EMS

Life Threatening

dental emergencies
Dental Emergencies
  • Knocked out tooth:
    • Place in container of whole milk if tooth can be replaced in 30 min.
    • Rinse tooth in cold water and place back in socket, then go to dentist ASAP:
nose bleeds
Nose Bleeds
  • Position victim in a sitting position
  • Keep head tilted slightly forward
  • Pinch both nostrils
Apply ice to bridge of nose
  • Put pressure on upper lip beneath nose
  • Once controlled DO NOT rub, blow, or pick the nose
rescue and transfer
Rescue and Transfer
  • Emergency rescue is a procedure for moving a victim from a dangerous location to a place of safety
indications for immediate rescue
Indications for Immediate Rescue
  • Fire, danger of explosion
  • Danger of asphyxia due to lack of O2 or gas
  • Serious traffic hazard
  • Risk of drowning
  • Exposure to cold / heat
Possibility of injury from collapsing walls or building
  • Electrical injury or potential injury
  • Pinning by machinery
  • Avoid unnecessary disturbances
  • Ensure open airway
  • Control Bleeding
  • Check for Injury
  • Immobilize injured parts before moving
  • Transport
methods of transfer
Methods of Transfer
  • Pulling the Victim
  • Lifting the Victim
  • Supporting the Victim
  • Chair Carry
  • Two Man Carry
  • Blanket Lift
  • Three Man Hammock Carry