Ch 16-The Civil Rights Movement- Sec 1 The Movment Begins - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Ch 16-The Civil Rights Movement- Sec 1 The Movment Begins

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  1. Ch 16-The Civil Rights Movement- Sec 1 The Movment Begins

  2. Essential Questions: • How had legalized segregation deprived African-Americans of their rights as citizens? • How did WWII experiences lay the foundation for the movement? • What were key court decisions of the movement? What were the responses to those decisions? • Who were the key leaders and organizations of the Civil Rightsmovement? • What were victories of the movement? • How did the movement expand and change?

  3. Segregation : The World of Jim Crow 1877-1960’s • Many states passed Jim Crow laws • The laws required separation of blacks and whites in schools, parks, public buildings, hospitals, and transportation systems • Whites and Blacks could not use the same public facilities • African American Facilities were always inferior ( Plessy V Fergerson 1896)

  4. Violence towards African- Americans was widespread • Lynchings were carried out when mobs seized innocent individuals and tortured, mutilated and hung the victim • Those who did it were not caught or punished (KKK)

  5. Discrimination: North Vs South • In the South de jure segregation was practiced because of the Jim Crow laws (The Law) • In the North de facto segregation was practiced, the not posted or unannounced separation of races ( The Fact) • Public Areas, schools, housing, and employment were effectively segregated • Bloody Race Riots occurred in NYC in 1900, and Springfield Illinois in 1908, Tulsa in 1921

  6. The Great Migration 1890-1920

  7. Success and Black Pride • The 369th Harlem Hell Fighters of WWI • Madame CJ Walker became the richest women in America • Marcus Garvey’s United Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) gained support in the 1920’s • The Harlem Renaissance of the 1920’s

  8. Civil Rights of the 1940’s • New job opportunities for Blacks, Latinos, and women • 1million African Americans served in WWII • Double V Campaign • In 1942 Civil Rights leader James Farmer founded the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) to confront segregation in the North • First Sit In was used in Chicago, and boycotts • In 1943 Race Riot in Detroit, 34 killed • A. Phillip Randolph’s March on Washington • FDR’s establishing the Fair Labor Practices Commission ( No Discrimination in War Work)

  9. NAACP’s Legal Strategy • The NAACP focused on the inequalities between the black/white schools • Under lawyer Thurgood Marshall the NAACP would win 29 out of 32 cases • Morgan Vs Virginia (1946) - No segregated seating on interstate buses • Sweatt Vs Painter (1950) – State Law schools must admit black applicants

  10. Brown V. Board of Education • The father of 8 yr old Linda Brown challenged the idea of his daughter traveling 21 blocks to school in Topeka, Kansas • Thurgood Marshall argued the case before the Supreme Court (1954) • Under Chief Justice Earl Warren the court unanimously struck down school segregation • It violated the 14th Amendment and “in public education the doctrine of separate but equal has no place.” • 12 million schoolchildren in 21 states were impacted

  11. Montgomery Bus Boycott 1956 • In December 1st, 1955 Seamstress and NAACP officer Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat on the bus home • The Montgomery Improvement Association suggested a boycott and a young 26 yr. old Minister Martin Luther King was elected leader • African-Americans filed a lawsuit and boycotted the busses for 381 days • A bomb ripped through MLK’s home but in 1956 the Supreme Court outlawed bus segregation

  12. Crisis in Little Rock 1957 • In September Gov. OrvalFaubus of Arkansas ordered the AK National Guard to turn away nine African American students trying to attend Little Rock’s Central High school • A Federal Judge ordered the “Little Rock Nine” be admitted • The students were turned away by hostile crowds and guardsman • IKE called out the 101st Airborne in support of the Federal Court Order (Troop escort) • Civil Rights Act of 1957 gave the Attorney General power over school desegregation

  13. Dr. Martin Luther King • Dr. King called his brand of non-violent resistance “Soul Force”. • He was influenced by his Christian beliefs, Henry David Thoreau, A. Phillip Randolph, Jesus and Mohandas Gandhi • King graduated from Morehouse College • King earned a divinity degree from Crozer Theological Seminary in Chester, PA • King earned a PH.D from Boston University where he met his wife Coretta Scott King

  14. Dr. King and the SCLC • In 1957 King joined with Baptist Ministers and Civil Rights leaders in forming the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) • King worked with two Northern pacifists: Beyard Rustin and Glenn Smily • Ella Baker was the backbone of SCLC by setting up branches all over the South • The Reverend Ralph Abernathy was elected treasurer

  15. Ch 16 Sec 2-Challenging Segregation: Sit-ins • In April 1960 Baker helped students at Shaw University organize The Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) • Student Activism would be essential • In February 1960 sit-in were held at the White Only lunch counter at Woolworth’s in Greensboro, NC • By late 1960 students had descended on segregated lunch counters in 48 cities in 11 states resisting violent backlash

  16. The Freedom Rides • In 1961 CORE members black and white began riding interstate buses to test the courts decision to end segregation on buses and public places • Freedom Riders were attacked and beaten by white mobs in Birmingham and Anniston, AL • One bus was firebombed, in Montgomery riders were beaten with bats and pipes • RFK sent in 400 Federal Marshals for the rest of the ride to Mississippi • The ICC banned segregation in all interstate travel

  17. Integrating Old Miss • In Sept. 1962 air-force veteran James Meredith won a case to enroll • Gov. Ross Barnett refused to let him register • Riots broke out, thousands of soldiers called in, 200 arrests,160 wounded marshals and two deaths

  18. The Movement at High Tide -Birmingham, Alabama • The SCLC and Dr. MLK targeted Birmingham, AL to hold a march • In April 12, 1963 Dr. MLK was arrested • He wrote “Letter from a Birmingham Jail” • On May 2nd, 2,000 children marched • Chief Bull Conner arrested 959 of them • On May 3rd, Police Dogs, high pressure hoses, and clubs were used (National TV Audience) • Protests, Boycotts, and Negative Media forced desegregation

  19. JFK sent a Civil Rights Bill to Congress • US Marshalls are sent in to desegregate the Univ. of AL • Gov. George Wallace stands in the door • NAACP’s Medger Evers is gunned down • In Sept. a bomb killed four girls in a Baptist Church

  20. The March on Washington • To encourage the Congress to pass JFK’s Civil Rights Bill, A. Phillip Randolph and Bayard Rustin organized a march on Washington • On August 28th, 1963 more than 250,000 people including 75,000 whites assembled on the national mall • All listened to many speaker including Dr. Martin Luther King’s “I have a dream!”