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Army Transition To 42-V Vehicular Electrical Power System. Mr. Barry Gilbert*, Dr. M. Abul Masrur**, Mr. John Monroe**, Mr. Rakesh Patel**, Mr. Mike Smith* * DCS Corporation ** U.S. Army TACOM. NDIA 3 rd Annual Intelligent Vehicle Systems Symposium June 9 – 12, 2003.

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slide1

Army Transition To 42-V Vehicular

Electrical Power System

Mr. Barry Gilbert*, Dr. M. Abul Masrur**, Mr. John Monroe**, Mr. Rakesh Patel**, Mr. Mike Smith*

* DCS Corporation ** U.S. Army TACOM

NDIA 3rd Annual Intelligent Vehicle Systems Symposium

June 9 – 12, 2003

slide2

Objectives of this presentation

  • The purpose of this paper is to show the:
  • Advantages in transitioning to a dual 28/42V electrical system that will overcome the current 28V drawbacks
  • Need to rapidly develop a new power system capable of supporting integration of new technologies.
slide3

Electrical System Trends

  • Both military and commercial vehicles electrical power needs have increased substantially over the past years.
  • The automotive industry is transitioning to a 42V electrical system that dramatically increases available power for technical advances with less space and weight in the existing 12V vehicles.
  • Military vehicles should follow the same trend
  • The current 28V system meets only 40% of the Future Combat System (FCS) needs for power generation, energy storage and power distribution.
  • A prototype 28/42V military vehicle does not yet exist and it is imperative that a prototype vehicle electrical system be investigated
slide4

Background – Voltage Evolution

  • Evolution of voltage for commercial and military
  • vehicles
  • Commercial
    • 6 volts (7 v charging) to 12 volts (14 v charging) in the 1950’s for passenger vehicles
    • 12 volts (14 v charging) to 24 volts (28 v charging) since the 1950’s for trucks
    • On the way from 12 volts (14 v charging) to 36 volts (42 v charging) since the 2002 for passenger vehicle
    • Military
    • Followed commercial vehicles until the late 1940’s
    • 24 v (28 v charging) used in most military since the late 1940’s
slide5

Power Needs

  • About 5 Kw (with an anticipated 15 Kw) in military vehicles in the near future.
  • 3 Kw or 3.5 Kw (with an anticipated 5 Kw or higher later on) in commercial automobiles in the near future.

* The above and other pictures in this presentation are from various open literature and open websites of non-govt. and govt. sources.

slide6

ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS FOR MILITARY VEHICLES

  • LAV -- Alternator 28 v dc, 245/280 amps ( 7.5 Kw)
  • HMMWV – Alternator, 28 v dc, appx. 100 amps in a particular variant ( 2.8 Kw)
slide7

ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS FOR MILITARY VEHICLES

  • FMTV -- Alternator, 14/28 dual volt dc, appx. 100 amps in a particular variant (200 amps option) ( 2.8 Kw)
  • Abrams Tank – 28 v dc, 650 amps ( 18 Kw)
slide8

ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS FOR MILITARY VEHICLES

  • UGV – Similar to above depending on the platform chosen
  • Robots – As low as 30 watts to 1500 watts @ 12 v or 24 v, Current: about 3 amps to 100 amps, depending on the voltage.
slide9

Needs in Military

  • Improved mission effectiveness implying
    • Increased silent watch time
    • Managed dynamic power allocation, enabled use of advanced technologies to maximize combat performance, and reduced logistical footprint.
  • More electrical power will be required so the latest technologies can be incorporated
  • Primary 28/42V transition objectives become:
    • Increase available power and energy storage,
    • Reduce fuel consumption,
    • Implement X-by-wire (X represents steer, brake, suspension, engine management, etc.)
    • Replace bulky mechanical components with smart and lighter electrical components, including reduction of wiring harness weight
    • Improve mission effectiveness
slide10

Needs in Military

      • Belt-less engine operation for most components (safety
      • and reliability)
  • - Better design packaging (components do not have to be
  • located on the belt system).
  • - A prototype 28/42V military vehicle does not yet exist
  • and it is imperative that a prototype vehicle design and
  • build be started to demonstrate the advantages of
  • transitioning to a higher voltage system.
slide11

Typical 42/28 dual-voltage architecture

AC

DC

24-volt

battery

24-volt

loads

42-volt

starter

36-volt

battery

36-volt

loads

42 to 28 volt conversion system (DC/DC converter)

Alternator

slide13

Components affected by voltage shift to 42 v (commercial vehicles)

  • Cooling fan (13 A)
  • A/C blower motor (22 A)
  • Windows motor (8 amps )
  • Vacuum pump (7 amps)
  • Power seat (7 amps)
  • Wiper (4 amps)
  • Less affected --
  • Washer (3 amps)
  • Idle speed (0.6 amps)
  • Door lock (1.5 amps)
  • Starter (few hundred amps for short duration amperage draw)
  • Alternator
slide14

Practical issues

  • Beyond certain size, can’t reduce motor winding gauge due to manufacturing constraints
  • Similarly, in the wiring harness only the wires carrying > 3 amps can be reduced in size
  • Implies that only 34% of the wiring harness will be benefited by the introduction of 42-volt system (24% total copper savings), compared to 14 volts.
slide15

Components affected by voltage shift to 42 v (military vehicles)

  • More affected -
  • Starter , alternator , climate control systems,
  • Thermal power unit (20 amps)
  • Motors for certain armor systems (4 amps)
  • Cooling fan
  • Washer (3 amps)
  • Less affected --
  • Idle speed motor (0.6 amps)
slide20

JUSTIFICATION OF 42 V SYSTEM

  • Advantages
  • Overall gain in electrical system efficiency (even without new functionalities, e.g. X-by-Wire, ISG etc.)
  • Packaging advantages due to the introduction of new functionalities by replacing mechanical elements
  • 42 v system leads to improved packaging compared to 14 or 28 v
  • Issues
  • Higher lamp filament voltage for lighting can be overcome by use of LED technology
  • Load dump and high voltage transients
  • Arcing due to higher voltage
slide21

Transition Plan

  • The path to 42V transformation includes:
  • Compatibility with current/emerging industry practices
  • Compatibility with legacy vehicles
  • Use of emerging standards such as, 42V PowerNet
  • Compatibility with Army fielding process
  • Endorsement by Army users and leading industry players
  • Acceptance as formal Army standard.
slide22

Transition Plan -- continued

  • The existing Advanced Mobile Power System (AMPS) STO
  • is focused towards the development of the configurable
  • power system, which is :
  • Capable of supporting electrical power and power management requirements to integrate Vetronics, C4ISR (Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance, and embedded simulation capabilities into FCS platforms, including robotic Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGV).
  • The success of the AMPS STO can easily be extrapolated to any future military vehicular platform as well.
slide23

Summary

  • The current 28V vehicle electrical system is inefficient, bulky, and less cost effective for the rapidly increasing power demands caused by new vehicle electrical loads such as, high power directed energy weapons, self protection (countermeasures) computers, multimedia, displays, communications, drive by wire, etc.
  • Mission needs are changing and requiring greater flexibility of vehicles.
  • As time passes, new technologies must be introduced to improve mission effectiveness.
  • The added features in military vehicles have exhausted the operating margin in the current 28V electrical system.
  • The military vehicles must follow the automotive industry to a higher voltage electrical system, such as 42V
  • The payoff is significant in terms of flexibility, improved mission effectiveness, and decreased logistics burden.
slide24

CONCLUSIONS

  • Beneficial for the military to embrace and phase in a 42-volt (single-voltage) electrical system architecture by starting with a dual 28/42 volt system.
  • Dual 14/42-volt for commercial and 28/42 volt for military will benefit from better packaging, weight reduction, and improved efficiency, even if X-by-wire or ISG is not incorporated.
  • Fuel economy will be improved by integrating components such as, integrated starter alternator (hybrid operation), electrical brake and steering systems, which are difficult to package using the existing 14 and 28 volt technologies.
  • Fuel economy will also result from several improvements working together, e.g. reduced size and weight of wiring harness, brake regeneration, integrated starter generator (hybrid operation), parasitic loss reduction, etc.
  • In terms of lamps use of new technologies like incandescent HID, LED’s, or PWM technology based lamps will be beneficial.