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ELECTRICAL POWER

ELECTRICAL POWER

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ELECTRICAL POWER

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  1. ELECTRICAL POWER

  2. Outline • Early Sources Of Electrical Energy • Mechanical Generators Of Electricity • Dynamo-Electric Generators • Gramme Armature & Successors • Alternator • Electric Lighting • Power Stations • Batteries

  3. Early Sources Of Electrical Energy • Electro-Statics • Frictional Machines Using Glass Cylinders • Electro-Chemistry • Chemical Effects Of An Electric Current • Alessandro Volta • Electro-Magnetics

  4. Allesandro Volta (1745-1827) • Voltaic Pile • 1800 • Electricity Generated In A Battery • Zinc (Z) • Silver (A) Or Copper • Flannel Or Paper • Soaked In Brine • Alkaline, Saline, Or Acid • Current Trough Wire

  5. Electro-magnetics • H. C. Oersted (1771-1851) • Danish Scientist - 1820 • Magnetic Needle Moved In Vicinity Of A Conductor Carrying Electricity • Magnetic Field Surrounding A Conductor Carrying Electricity • A. M. Ampere (1775-1836) • Electro-Dynamic Interaction Of Electric Currents & Magnets • Commutator

  6. Electro-magnetics (continued) • D. f. J. Arago (1786-1853) • Produced First Electro-Magnet (1820) • W. Sturgeon (1783-1850) • First Practical Electro-Magnet (1825) • Michael Faraday (1791-1867) • “Convert Magnetism Into Electricity” • Electro-Magnetic Induction (1831) • Not Interested In Commercialism

  7. First Mechanical Generators Of Electricity • Basic Principles • Hippolyte Pixii • Saxton • Clarke

  8. Basic Principles • A Conductor Carrying Electricity Produces A Magnetic Field Surrounding It • If Conductor Is Coiled Around Iron • Iron Temporarily Magnetizes • If Iron Is Hardened By Hammering • Iron Permanently Magnetizes • Electric Generators • Field System • Simple Or Compound Magnets • Coil System • Generation Takes Place • Relative Movement Between Systems

  9. Hippolyte Pixii • First Magneto-Electric Machine • 1832 • Hand-Driven • Only Working Model • Field Magnet Revolves Relative To Coil • First Practical Application Of Faraday’s Principle

  10. Magneto-Electric Machines • Saxton (1833) • Arrangement Of Components Was Reversed • Coil Rotated • Magnets Remained Fixed • Pixii (1833) • Added Commutator - Based On Ampere’s Work • Converted Oscillating Current To Unidirectional Current

  11. E. M. Clarke • Owned Company Making Scientific Instruments • First Manufacturing On Commercial Scale • 1834 • Coils Rotated In Plane Parallel To Side Of Magnet • Experimented With Types Of Windings

  12. Stoehrer Of Leipzig • 1846 • Three Horseshoe Shaped Magnets • Six-Polar Armature • Science Museum Of London

  13. F. Nollet (1794-1853) • First To Contemplate Making A Power-Driven Magneto-Electric Machine • Supply Relatively Large Output • Lighthouses • Died Before Completion • Frederick Hale Holmes Continued Work

  14. Frederick Hale Holmes • Tested On Small Scale • Trinity House Wharf to Woolrich On Thames • Components • 36 U-Shaped Magnets In Pairs Of Six • Poles Outward • Stationary Coils & Commutator • Size - 5’ Square & 2 tons • Output • Driven By Steam Engine At 600rpm • 1.5 kw