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L2 Animal Diversity

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  1. L2 Animal Diversity

  2. Aims of the module • Survey animal life, from protozoa to mammals, with emphasis on the evolutionary forces that have created this diversity • Demonstrate fundamental unity of animal life, in terms of mechanisms that organise body plans • Illustrate the adaptations of animals to different lifestyles in different habitats • Examine the causes of mass extinctions and new waves of adaptive radiation, and analyse the interactions of human beings with other animals

  3. Overview of lectures 1-3 • Coping with animal diversity • Classification and animal evolution • Origins of animals

  4. http://taxonomy.zoology.gla.ac.uk/~rdmp1c/teaching/L2/AnimalDiversity/http://taxonomy.zoology.gla.ac.uk/~rdmp1c/teaching/L2/AnimalDiversity/

  5. Species Scape Organisms drawn proportional to number of species in each group

  6. Naming species • Common names (e.g., lion, löwe) • Scientific names (e.g., Panthera leo)

  7. Linnaeus • Universal scientific naming system • Uses international language of science (in 1700’s this was Latin) • Each species has a binomial name

  8. How to use names • First name is the genus or generic name and starts with a capital letter, e.g. Homo • Second name, the species epithet, starts with a lower case letter, e.g., sapiens • The two together are either underlined (Homosapiens) or in italics (Homo sapiens)

  9. Names can indicate relationship, and can be descriptive • Homo sapiens (modern man) • Homo neanderthalensis (Neanderthal man) • Homo erectus (upright man) • Pan troglodytes (chimpanzee)

  10. Names can tell us about relationships Cherie Booth

  11. Name changes matter Cherie Booth Cherie Blair

  12. Name changes matter Jonathon Roughgarden = Joan Roughgarden 23,200 hits 32,600 hits

  13. Names can change…Leptodactylus fuscus (Schneider) Rana fusca Schneider 1802 Ranatyphonia Sonnini & Latreille 1803 Ranatyphonia Daudin 1824 Ranasibilatrix Wied 1826 Leptodactylustyphonius Fitzinger 1841 Cystignathustyphonius Dumeril & Bibron 1843 Leptodactylustyphonius Fitzinger 1858 Cystignathusfuscus Günther 1882 Leptodactylustyphonius Boulenger 1927 Leptodactylussibilatrix Müller 1935 Leptodactylussibilatrix Parker 1968 Leptodactylusfuscus Heyer

  14. Birds of the Belgian Congo • AMNH expedition of 1909-1915 lists 11,131 birds • 8,827 of these don’t appear in modern bird lists • Either massive extinction (or faunal turnover) of African birds, or… • the names have changed since last century

  15. Stegomyia aegypti(yellow fever mosquito)

  16. Google searches give different results depending on name • Stegomyia aegypti1000 • Aedes aegypti36400 • Culex aegypti11300

  17. uBio Google client

  18. Why multiple names for one species? • Ignorance of earlier literature • Dispute over species boundaries • Describe morphs of the same species as different species (e.g., colour, sex, or life history morphs)

  19. Peacrabs of New Zealand Species A males females Species A hard stage females new species hard stage females Species A Species B

  20. “Three” blind men and the elephant

  21. A real example (Anomalocaris)

  22. Furnarius leucopus Furnariphilus pagei Price and Clayton Immortality = having a species named after you

  23. Taxonomy needs help • Making literature and specimens readily accessible • Making it easier to identify species • Making it easier to discover whether a species is new to science

  24. Home pages for species • How would you find out about a particular species? • Create a home page for each species (you could contribute!)

  25. WikiSpecieshttp://species.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page

  26. Barcodes Only a few numbers needed to generate unique identifiers e.g., 10 x 10 x10 x 10 x 10 x 10 = 1,000,000

  27. DNA as a biological barcode • Sequence the same stretch of DNA in all animals • Use sequence as a unique identifier • Quickly know whether sequence is new or not (compare with all known sequences) • Get some idea of what unknown species is (e.g., it’s like fly DNA) • Already used in microbiology and forensic zoology (e.g., whale meat)

  28. DNA sequence

  29. DNA barcode for Calidris alpina (Dunlin)

  30. Names and diversity • Zoologists have a well defined scheme for naming species • Names for species can change • Internet will play a big role in cataloguing life (you could help out) • DNA barcoding may be the future for species discovery and identification