L2 Animal Diversity
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L2 Animal Diversity Aims of the module Survey animal life, from protozoa to mammals, with emphasis on the evolutionary forces that have created this diversity Demonstrate fundamental unity of animal life, in terms of mechanisms that organise body plans

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Aims of the module l.jpg
Aims of the module

  • Survey animal life, from protozoa to mammals, with emphasis on the evolutionary forces that have created this diversity

  • Demonstrate fundamental unity of animal life, in terms of mechanisms that organise body plans

  • Illustrate the adaptations of animals to different lifestyles in different habitats

  • Examine the causes of mass extinctions and new waves of adaptive radiation, and analyse the interactions of human beings with other animals

Overview of lectures 1 3 l.jpg
Overview of lectures 1-3

  • Coping with animal diversity

  • Classification and animal evolution

  • Origins of animals

Http taxonomy zoology gla ac uk rdmp1c teaching l2 animaldiversity l.jpg

Species scape l.jpg
Species Scapehttp://taxonomy.zoology.gla.ac.uk/~rdmp1c/teaching/L2/AnimalDiversity/

Organisms drawn proportional to number of species in each group

Naming species l.jpg
Naming specieshttp://taxonomy.zoology.gla.ac.uk/~rdmp1c/teaching/L2/AnimalDiversity/

  • Common names

    (e.g., lion, löwe)

  • Scientific names

    (e.g., Panthera leo)

Linnaeus l.jpg

  • Universal scientific naming system

  • Uses international language of science (in 1700’s this was Latin)

  • Each species has a binomial name

How to use names l.jpg
How to use nameshttp://taxonomy.zoology.gla.ac.uk/~rdmp1c/teaching/L2/AnimalDiversity/

  • First name is the genus or generic name and starts with a capital letter, e.g. Homo

  • Second name, the species epithet, starts with a lower case letter, e.g., sapiens

  • The two together are either underlined (Homosapiens) or in italics (Homo sapiens)

Names can indicate relationship and can be descriptive l.jpg
Names can indicate relationship, and can be descriptivehttp://taxonomy.zoology.gla.ac.uk/~rdmp1c/teaching/L2/AnimalDiversity/

  • Homo sapiens (modern man)

  • Homo neanderthalensis (Neanderthal man)

  • Homo erectus (upright man)

  • Pan troglodytes (chimpanzee)

Names can tell us about relationships l.jpg
Names can tell us about relationshipshttp://taxonomy.zoology.gla.ac.uk/~rdmp1c/teaching/L2/AnimalDiversity/

Cherie Booth

Name changes matter l.jpg
Name changes matterhttp://taxonomy.zoology.gla.ac.uk/~rdmp1c/teaching/L2/AnimalDiversity/

Cherie Booth

Cherie Blair

Name changes matter13 l.jpg
Name changes matterhttp://taxonomy.zoology.gla.ac.uk/~rdmp1c/teaching/L2/AnimalDiversity/

Jonathon Roughgarden =

Joan Roughgarden

23,200 hits

32,600 hits

Names can change leptodactylus fuscus schneider l.jpg
Names can change…http://taxonomy.zoology.gla.ac.uk/~rdmp1c/teaching/L2/AnimalDiversity/Leptodactylus fuscus (Schneider)

Rana fusca Schneider

1802 Ranatyphonia Sonnini & Latreille

1803 Ranatyphonia Daudin

1824 Ranasibilatrix Wied

1826 Leptodactylustyphonius Fitzinger

1841 Cystignathustyphonius Dumeril & Bibron

1843 Leptodactylustyphonius Fitzinger

1858 Cystignathusfuscus Günther

1882 Leptodactylustyphonius Boulenger

1927 Leptodactylussibilatrix Müller

1935 Leptodactylussibilatrix Parker

1968 Leptodactylusfuscus Heyer

Birds of the belgian congo l.jpg
Birds of the Belgian Congohttp://taxonomy.zoology.gla.ac.uk/~rdmp1c/teaching/L2/AnimalDiversity/

  • AMNH expedition of 1909-1915 lists 11,131 birds

  • 8,827 of these don’t appear in modern bird lists

  • Either massive extinction (or faunal turnover) of African birds, or…

  • the names have changed since last century

Stegomyia aegypti yellow fever mosquito l.jpg
Stegomyia aegyptihttp://taxonomy.zoology.gla.ac.uk/~rdmp1c/teaching/L2/AnimalDiversity/(yellow fever mosquito)

Google searches give different results depending on name l.jpg
Google searches give different results depending on namehttp://taxonomy.zoology.gla.ac.uk/~rdmp1c/teaching/L2/AnimalDiversity/

  • Stegomyia aegypti1000

  • Aedes aegypti36400

  • Culex aegypti11300

Ubio google client l.jpg
uBio Google clienthttp://taxonomy.zoology.gla.ac.uk/~rdmp1c/teaching/L2/AnimalDiversity/

Why multiple names for one species l.jpg
Why multiple names for one species?http://taxonomy.zoology.gla.ac.uk/~rdmp1c/teaching/L2/AnimalDiversity/

  • Ignorance of earlier literature

  • Dispute over species boundaries

  • Describe morphs of the same species as different species (e.g., colour, sex, or life history morphs)

Slide22 l.jpg

Peacrabs of New Zealandhttp://taxonomy.zoology.gla.ac.uk/~rdmp1c/teaching/L2/AnimalDiversity/

Species A



Species A

hard stage


new species

hard stage


Species A

Species B

Three blind men and the elephant l.jpg
“Three” blind men and the elephanthttp://taxonomy.zoology.gla.ac.uk/~rdmp1c/teaching/L2/AnimalDiversity/

A real example anomalocaris l.jpg
A real example (http://taxonomy.zoology.gla.ac.uk/~rdmp1c/teaching/L2/AnimalDiversity/Anomalocaris)

Immortality having a species named after you l.jpg

Furnarius leucopushttp://taxonomy.zoology.gla.ac.uk/~rdmp1c/teaching/L2/AnimalDiversity/

Furnariphilus pagei Price and Clayton

Immortality = having a species named after you

Taxonomy needs help l.jpg
Taxonomy needs helphttp://taxonomy.zoology.gla.ac.uk/~rdmp1c/teaching/L2/AnimalDiversity/

  • Making literature and specimens readily accessible

  • Making it easier to identify species

  • Making it easier to discover whether a species is new to science

Home pages for species l.jpg
Home pages for specieshttp://taxonomy.zoology.gla.ac.uk/~rdmp1c/teaching/L2/AnimalDiversity/

  • How would you find out about a particular species?

  • Create a home page for each species (you could contribute!)

Wikispecies http species wikipedia org wiki main page l.jpg

Barcodes l.jpg

Only a few numbers needed to generate unique identifiers

e.g., 10 x 10 x10 x 10 x 10 x 10 = 1,000,000

Dna as a biological barcode l.jpg
DNA as a biological barcodehttp://taxonomy.zoology.gla.ac.uk/~rdmp1c/teaching/L2/AnimalDiversity/

  • Sequence the same stretch of DNA in all animals

  • Use sequence as a unique identifier

  • Quickly know whether sequence is new or not (compare with all known sequences)

  • Get some idea of what unknown species is (e.g., it’s like fly DNA)

  • Already used in microbiology and forensic zoology (e.g., whale meat)

Dna sequence l.jpg
DNA sequencehttp://taxonomy.zoology.gla.ac.uk/~rdmp1c/teaching/L2/AnimalDiversity/

Dna barcode for calidris alpina dunlin l.jpg
DNA barcode for http://taxonomy.zoology.gla.ac.uk/~rdmp1c/teaching/L2/AnimalDiversity/Calidris alpina (Dunlin)

Names and diversity l.jpg
Names and diversityhttp://taxonomy.zoology.gla.ac.uk/~rdmp1c/teaching/L2/AnimalDiversity/

  • Zoologists have a well defined scheme for naming species

  • Names for species can change

  • Internet will play a big role in cataloguing life (you could help out)

  • DNA barcoding may be the future for species discovery and identification