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Syntactic Priming in Bilinguals: Effects of verb repetition in an L2-monolingual and cross-lingual setting. Sofie Schoonbaert 1 , Robert Hartsuiker 1 , & Martin Pickering 2 1 Ghent University, Belgium 2 University of Edinburgh, Scotland. ISB2005, March 20-24th, Barcelona. Some background.

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slide1

Syntactic Priming in Bilinguals:Effects of verb repetition in an L2-monolingual and cross-lingual setting

Sofie Schoonbaert1, Robert Hartsuiker1, & Martin Pickering2

1Ghent University, Belgium

2University of Edinburgh, Scotland

ISB2005, March 20-24th, Barcelona

some background
Some background

Speaking in a second language

  • Bilingualism
  • Speech production
some background3
Some background

The Architecture of BILINGUAL MEMORY

  • At least ‘some’ information is shared between languages

(perception studies of Dijkstra et al., Brysbaert et al.;

production studies of Costa et al., Colome et al.)

mainly studying semantic & lexical representations)

  • ‘SHARED SYNTAX’ vs. ‘SEPARATE SYNTAX’ hypothesis

syntactic rules like:

passive-active / prepositional dative [PO]-double object dative [DO]

 Syntactic priming in bilinguals??

SEMANTIC/LEXICAL

SYNTACTIC

syntactic priming studies
Syntactic priming studies
  • Speech production
  • SYNTACTIC PRIMING:

tendency to repeat a recently encountered structure

  • In monolinguals:
  • (Bock, 1986, 1989; Bock & Loebell, 1990; Branigan et al., 2000; Hartsuiker & Kolk, 1998; Hartsuiker et al., 1999; Hartsuiker & Westenberg, 2000; Pickering & Branigan, 1998, 1999; Pickering et al., 2002; Potter & Lombardi, 1998)
  • BOCK (1986): repeating auditory prime sentence – describing visually presented picture with passive-active / DO-PO structures
  • VERB REPETITIONBETWEEN PRIME-TARGET (Pickering & Branigan, 1998)
  • lexical boost to syntactic priming
model adopted from pickering branigan 1998
Model (adopted from Pickering & Branigan, 1998)

combinatorial nodes

unrelated verbs

PRIME:

‘The chef gives a gun to the boxer’ (PO)

TARGET verb: to send

[PO]

[DO]

category node

lemma stratum

lemma nodes

give

send

word-form stratum

model adopted from pickering branigan 19986
Model (adopted from Pickering & Branigan, 1998)

combinatorial nodes

identical verbs condition

PRIME:

‘The chef gives a gun to the boxer’ (PO)

TARGETverb: to give

[PO]

[DO]

category node

lemma stratum

lemma nodes

give

send

word-form stratum

syntactic priming studies7
Syntactic priming studies

Between monolinguals in dialogue:

Confederate technique (► dialogue game; Branigan et al., 2000)

slide8

PRIME

Match: press 1

Mismatch: press 2

‘The chef gives a gun to the boxer’

[PO]

The chef gives the boxer a gun

Participant

Confederate

(L2)

Dialogue game

(introduced by Branigan, et al., 2000)

slide9

TARGET

Match: press 1

Mismatch: press 2

nun swimmer

Confederate

Participant

(L2)

Dialogue game

(introduced by Branigan, et al., 2000)

syntactic priming studies10
Syntactic priming studies

Between monolinguals in dialogue:

Confederate technique (► dialogue game; Branigan et al., 2000)

In bilinguals:

- (Loebell & Bock, 2003;Meijer & Fox Tree, 2003)

- In a dialogue game: Hartsuiker, et al., 2004

model adopted from hartsuiker et al 2004
Model (adopted from Hartsuiker et al., 2004)

L1 prime:

Passive

(verb perseguir)

L2 response on target picture

(verb ‘to hit’):

 More Passives than Actives in L2

conceptual nodes

L2

language nodes

L1

lemma nodes

combinatorial nodes

category node

present study
Present study
  • syntactic priming in L2 ?
  • cross-linguistic priming (L1->L2)?
  • with dative structures
  • with Dutch-English bilinguals in dialogue

 verb manipulation

experiment 1 l2 l2
Experiment 1 : L2 -> L2
  • Looking for syntactic priming of dative structures in Dutch-English bilinguals

PRIME

TARGET

‘The chef gives a gun to the boxer’

[PO]

The chef gives the boxer a gun

Confederate

(L2)

Participant (L2)

experiment 1 l2 l214
Experiment 1 : L2 -> L2

Design:

2 (DATIVE PRIME: DO - PO) x 2 (VERB TYPE: identical - unrelated)

MAINSyntactic priming effect !

INTERACTION

verb repetition enhances the syntactic priming effect

give-give

give-show

Prop. POresponses

LEXICAL BOOST

slide15

‘De kok geeft de bokser een geweer’

[PO]

Experiment 2 : L1 -> L2

  • Looking for syntactic priming of dative structures in Dutch-English bilinguals

PRIME

TARGET

De kok geeft de bokser een geweer

Confederate

(L1)

Participant

(L2)

Bilingual version of a dialogue game (introduced by Branigan, et al., 2000)

experiment 2 l1 l2
Experiment 2 : L1 -> L2

Design:

2 (DATIVEPRIME: DO-PO) x 2 (VERBTYPE: translation - unrelated)

MAINSyntactic priming effect !

INTERACTION

translation equivalence enhances the syntactic priming effect

geven-give

geven-show

Prop. POresponses

TRANSLATION EQUIVALENCE BOOST

slide17

EXP 1

L2-L2

EXP 2

L1-L2

LEXICALBOOST

TRANSLATION EQUIVALENCEBOOST

discussion
Discussion

Basic results :

  • Syntactic priming within L2
  • Cross-linguistic syntactic priming (from L1 to L2)

 Boost to syntactic priming by:

1/ repetition of the verb (36%)

2/ translation equivalent verbs (17%)

(in prime and target)

HOW COULD THIS HAPPEN ?

model exp1 adopted from hartsuiker et al 2004
Model EXP1 (adopted from Hartsuiker et al., 2004)
  • L2 prime:
  • PO
  • (verb ‘to give’)
  • L2 response on target picture
  • More PO than DO
  • L2 prime:
  • PO
  • (verb ‘give’)
  • L2 response on target picture
  • (verb ‘to give’)
  • more priming with identical verbs

conceptual nodes

lemma nodes

combinatorial nodes

An integrated account of bilingual language representation

model exp2 adopted from hartsuiker et al 2004
Model EXP2 (adopted from Hartsuiker et al., 2004)
  • L1 prime:
  • PO
  • (verb ‘geven’)
  • L2 response on target picture
  • More PO than DO
  • L1 prime:
  • PO
  • (verb ‘geven’)
  • L2 response on target picture
  • (verb ‘to give’)
  • more priming with translation equivalents

conceptual nodes

lemma nodes

combinatorial nodes

An integrated account of bilingual language representation

discussion21
Discussion

We believe that:

  • the syntactic priming effect within L2 (EXP1) develops in a similar way as in L1 (see Pickering & Branigan, 1998)
  • cross-linguistic syntactic priming occurs AND was enhanced with translation equivalent verbs

due to simultaneous activation of

--- a combinatorial node, specifying the dative structure (Pickering & Branigan, 1998) and

--- the translation equivalent’s lemma (due to the connection between the semantic representation and the lemma)

This activation increases the probability of selecting the same structure with the translation equivalent (cfr. Cleland & Pickering, 2003)

general conclusions
General Conclusions
  • Bilingualism

---> a single lexical-syntactic memory system

With…

  • ‘SHARED SYNTAX’ vs. ‘SEPARATE SYNTAX’ hypothesis
  • Shared concepts activating words from both languages
  • Words from the non-target language influence syntactic choice (via cascading of activation)

(with moderately proficient Dutch-English bilinguals)

  • Speech production
  • Reliable SYNTACTIC PRIMING across languages

- a translation equivalence boost

thanks to you to rob hartsuiker martin pickering supervising to the fsr flanders funding
Thanks to you to Rob Hartsuiker & Martin Pickering (supervising) to the FSR-Flanders (funding)
exp 1 l2 l2
Exp 1 : L2 -> L2

significant 2-way interaction

Identical

Unrelated

DO

PO

PO responses

exp 2 l1 l2

PO responses

Exp 2 : L1 -> L2

Translation

Unrelated

discussion27
Discussion

A closer look at the results: some models

  • Levelt & colleagues

Lemma = specifies syntactic proporties of a word

= contactpoint between meaning and form

(the base form of words)

  • Pickering & Branigan, 1998 (extension)

(include combinatorial nodes, that are linked to/shared by the lemma nodes)

To account for repeated verb effect in SP

(repeated verb: residual activation in both verb&combinat node;

different verb: only residual activation in the combinat node)

  • Hartsuiker et al., 2004 (extension for bilinguals)
experiment 1 l2 l229

‘The chef gives

the boxer a gun’

[DO]

Experiment 1 : L2 -> L2
  • Looking for syntacticpriming of dative structures in Dutch-English bilinguals

PRIME

Match: press 1

Mismatch: press 2

The chef gives the boxer a gun

Confederate

(L2)

Subject

Monolingual dialogue game in L2 (introduced by Branigan, et al., 2000)

experiment 1 l2 l230
Experiment 1 : L2 -> L2
  • Looking for syntacticpriming of dative structures in Dutch-English bilinguals

TARGET

Match: press 1

Mismatch: press 2

nun swimmer

Confederate

Subject

(L2)