SPACE FRAMES AND GEODESIC DOMES

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SPACE FRAMES AND GEODESIC DOMES. SPACE FRAMES AND GEODESIC DOMES. Objectives : Students will be exposed to the concepts of point, line, plane and dimensions in relationship to the triangle. Understand the basic structural engineering concepts that underlie geodesic dome construction;

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### SPACE FRAMES AND GEODESIC DOMES

SPACE FRAMES AND GEODESIC DOMES

Objectives:

• Students will be exposed to the concepts of point, line, plane and dimensions in relationship to the triangle.
• Understand the basic structural engineering concepts that underlie geodesic dome construction;
• Understand the advantages and disadvantages of modern building materials in dome construction; and
• Have an increased awareness of more in-depth concepts relating to the study of architecture, geometry, and structures.
WARM UP ACTIVITY
• Select a team member that you will plan with to complete this project;
• Write a four to six sentence Design Statement about how your team think the roof of large structures (stadiums, gymnasiums, concert halls, etc.) are built without columns. Include your definitions of a geodesic dome and a space frame.
Vocabulary
• A polyhedron (many surfaces) is a geometric solid in three dimensions with flat faces and straight edges.
• A tetrahedron is a polyhedron with four sides, but is also called a pyramid.
• A hexahedron is a polyhedron with six sides, but is also called a cube.
• A polyhedron with six rectangles as sides also has many names—a rectangular parallelepided, rectangular prism, or box.
• An octahedron is a polyhedron with eight faces.
Vocabulary
• Tension is a force that acts to expand or lengthen the thing it is acting on.
• Compression is a force that acts to compress or shorten the thing it is acting on.
SPACE FRAMES
• A space frame is a truss-like, lightweight rigid structure constructed from interlocking struts in a geometric pattern.
SPACE FRAMES
• Space frames usually utilize a multidirectional span, and are often used to accomplish long spans with few supports.
SPACE FRAMES
• They derive their strength from the inherent rigidity of the triangular frame; flexing loads (bending moments) are transmitted as tension and compression loads along the length of each strut.

Space frames are an increasingly common architectural technique especially for large roof spans in modernist commercial and industrial buildings

Some space frame applications include:
• Hotel/Hospital/commercial building entrances
• Commercial building lobbies/atriums
• Parking canopies
Advantages of space frame systems over conventional systems:
• Random column placement
• Column-free spaces
• Minimal perimeter support
• Design freedom
• Supports all types of roofing
GEODESIC DOMES
• A geodesic dome is a sphere-like structure composed of a complex network of triangles.
GEODESIC DOMES
• Geodesic domes are usually hemispheres (parts of spheres, like half a ball) made up of triangles. The triangles have 3 parts:
• the face - the part in the middle
• the edge - the line between corners
• the vertex - where the edges meet
The triangles create a self-bracing framework that gives structural strength while using a minimum of material.
A dome’s design is dependent upon many factors, including:
• Needed area and span, or distance between supports;
• Budget and building schedule;
• Architect’s and /or client’s aesthetic preferences;
• Forces, such as compression and tension, acting on the structure; and
• Building materials.
EXAMPLES OF GEODESIC DOMES:
• Spaceship Earth, the AT&T Pavilion at Epcot in Disney World, Florida, is an adaptation of Buckminster Fuller's geodesic dome
• Tacoma Dome in Washington State
• Milwaukee's Mitchell Park Conservatory
• Biosphere desert project in Arizona
• Des Moines Arboretum, a self contained ecosphere
Engineering Disasters

Engineers must be concerned about safety at all times.  Lives are at stake when bridges, buildings, or structures collapse. Engineers must design structures to withstand all kinds of weather conditions and all types of loads.  While the goal is to have no design fail, engineers examine and learn from past mistakes to avoid such failures in the future.

• Tacoma Narrows Bridge, Tacoma, Washington (failed in 1940)
• 10 killed
Engineering Disasters
• Falls View Bridge, Niagara Falls (failed 1938)
• 18 killed
• Tay Bridge, Scotland (failed in 1879)
• 29 killed
• Quebec Bridge, St. Lawrence River (failed 1907,1916)
• 45 killed
Engineering Disasters
• Point Pleasant/Silver Bridge, Ohio River (failed 1967)
• 75 killed
• Hyatt Regency Walkway Collapse, Kansas City, Missouri (failed in 1981)
• 112 killed
TEAM CHALLENGE ASSIGNMENT
• The team challenge is to build a 3-dimensional triangle;
• Team members must discuss the concept among themselves as they each attempt to build a model.

15 minutes…

TEAM SYNTHESIS
• Team members must attempt to join their 3-dimensional triangles;
• Each link should be connected firmly and completely;
• Repeat the process until four triangles joined together in a square.

20 minutes…

Rubric For Space FrameProject
• Layout/ Design
• Information
• Contributions
• Quality Of Work
• Following Classroom Guidelines
Brief Constructed Response

Student must complete a responding to one of the following topics:

• You are a hired Engineer designed to build a space frame for the new town. Your employers are not convinced that your space frame design would be successful. Create a BCR that explains how your space frame will withstand the forces placed on space frames: Compression, Tension, Shear, and Torsion.
Brief Constructed Response

Student must complete a responding to one of the following topics:

• You are a space frame inspector that has been hired to inspect space frames. Create a BCR that explains how “Live” and “Dead” loads would be handled in your space frame design. Use examples to illustrate how these loads would be supported.
HOMEWORK
• Research: Buckminster Fuller
• Write about the accomplishments and contributions achieved by Buckminster Fuller and explain how they relate to today’s Architectural structures.

One to Two Pages

EVALUATION

QUESTIONS FOR THE INDIVIDUAL GROUPS:

• How did you come up with the initial design for your space frame?