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IRANIAN REVOLUTION

IRANIAN REVOLUTION

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IRANIAN REVOLUTION

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  1. IRANIAN REVOLUTION MONARCHY TO THEOCRACY, SHAH TO AYATOLLAH

  2. SHAH OF IRAN • Mohammad Reza Pahlavi (1919 – 1980) • Promised constitutional monarchy • Increasingly took power from PM

  3. GAINED POWER • (Replaced father, Reza Pahlavi  • Forced to abdicate • By Britain & USSR • Friendly relations with Nazi Germany)

  4. “KING OF KINGS” • Crowned himself: • Emperor • In 1967 • Also crowned his wife: empress • (Note: Peacock Throne->)

  5. LEADERSHIP STYLE • Manipulation • Built loyal army • Expansion of constitutional powers • After assassination attempt • 1949 • Secret police: “SAVAK”: • Suppressed opponents • Helped rich at expense of poor

  6. WHITE REVOLUTION • Reform policies • Land reform • Some land taken from religious leaders • = no income for them • Voting rights to women • Elimination of illiteracy • Generally positive impact: on some • Resented by religious leaders

  7. COLD WAR • Ally of the West • Not USSR: bordering nation • Oil deal with U.S. • Opponents critical of subservience to US

  8. INCREASED OPPOSITION • From Shi’ite Muslims Western moderization: • Western clothing • Eliminated Qur’anic oaths Lack of democracy • Unresponsive to public opinion • Uneven distribution of wealth • Land reform

  9. INCREASED DISCONTENT • In 1970’s • Islamic clerics, esp. Ayatollah Khomeini • built on popular discontent • Demonstrations, riots, strikes • Tied these ideas to Islamic principles • Called for overthrow of the Shah

  10. REVOLUTIONARY IMAGES

  11. REVOLUTION! • Widespread demonstrations • 1978-’79 • Shah’s gov’t. collapsed • Jan. 16, 1979 • Shah fled Iran • Went to Egypt

  12. MORE……..

  13. AND MORE…

  14. ISLAMIC REPUBLIC • Or theocracy = gov’t which supports religion • Led by Rouhollah Khomeini …….. • Muslim “ayatollah” • Based on Islamic fundamentalism