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Iranian History

Iranian History. 1945-1979. Reza Shah Pahlavi (r. 1925-1941). Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi (r. 1941-1979). Mohammad Mossadegh (PM, 1951-1953). Time Man of the Year, 7 Jan. 1952. Ayatollah Khomeini (Supreme Leader, 1979-1989).

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Iranian History

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  1. Iranian History 1945-1979

  2. Reza Shah Pahlavi (r. 1925-1941)

  3. Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi (r. 1941-1979)

  4. Mohammad Mossadegh(PM, 1951-1953) Time Man of the Year, 7 Jan. 1952

  5. Ayatollah Khomeini (Supreme Leader, 1979-1989)

  6. 1951 – Iran nationalizes the oil industry + Mossadegh becomes PM • 1901: Britain gained its oil concession • 1909: Anglo-Iranian Oil Company formed (BP today) • 1933: Britain renegotiated concession terms, securing rights to oil through 1993 and at a fixed rate of royalty payments to Iran. Royalties paid only on crude oil; Britain alone gained from the AIOC’s oil refining operation. Iranians excluded from skilled jobs at the AIOC and any say in running the company. • late 1940s: Iran = world’s 4th largest oil exporter; producer of 90% of Europe’s oil

  7. “My countrymen lack the bare necessities of existence. Their standard of living is probably one of the lowest in the world. Our greatest national asset is oil. This should be the source of work and food for the population of Iran. Its exploitation should properly be our national industry, and the revenue from it should go to improve our conditions of life. As now organized, however, the petroleum industry has contributed practically nothing to the well being of the people or to the technical progress or industrial development of my country.” - Mossadegh, speech to the UN, Oct. 1951

  8. “Persian oil is of vital importance to our economy and we regard it as essential to do everything possible to prevent the Persians from getting away with a breach of their contractual obligations.” - British PM Clement Atlee, 1951

  9. 1953 – CIA overthrow of Mossadegh • Why: Mossadegh kicked the Brits out of Iran in 1952. US worried about the Soviets filling the vacuum. “ … the British are so obstructive and determined on a rule-or-ruin policy in Iran that we must strike out on an independent policy or run the risk of having Iran disappear behind the Iron Curtain.” - Dean Acheson, secretary of state for Truman, 1951

  10. Mohammad Reza returns from Rome in 1953 after the coup, and incorrectly thinks that his people love him: “I knew it! I knew it! They love me!” • He then sought to modernize Iran and to consolidate his power: • Renegotiated oil concession (Iran got more $$) • Disbanded National Front (Mossadegh’s group) and imprisoned its leaders • Banned the Tudeh Party • Est. secret police, SAVAK

  11. 1961 – shah imposes White Revolution

  12. 1979 – Iranian Revolution • Protests against the shah begin in 1978 • Jan. 1979: Shah goes into exile • Feb.: Khomeini returns • March: Iranians vote for an Islamic Republic • Dec.: Iranians approve new constitution

  13. Ayatollah Khamenei(Supreme Leader, 1989-present)

  14. MahmoudAhmadinejad(President, 2005-present)

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