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Drugs Use: Nature and Extent

Drugs Use: Nature and Extent

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Drugs Use: Nature and Extent

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  1. “Drugs are bad. You shouldn’tdo drugs. If you do them, you’rebad. Because drugs are bad.”-- Mr. Mackey “Drugs are bad because if you dodrugs, you’re a hippie andhippies suck.” -- Eric Cartman Drugs Use: Nature and Extent CJ/PS 4530The War on Drugs a Dr. Matt presentation

  2. Major Types of Drugs • Drugs are categorized according to their major effects on brain function and human behavior • stimulants • depressants • hallucinogens / psychedelics / dissociative anesthetics • narcotics/opiates • inhalants

  3. Major Types of Drugs • Stimulants – stimulate central nervous system (CNS) / increase activity of the brain and spinal chord • Depressants – lessen activity of the CNS / decrease or stop vital functions • Hallucinogens – produce mood and perceptual changes varying from sensory illusions to hallucinations • Narcotics– opium and opium derivatives, and their synthetic versions, used mostly as pain killers • Also:analgesics (painkiller), sedatives (calming aid), hypnotics (sleep aid)

  4. Some examples … • Stimulants – Caffeine, Nicotine, Cocaine, Amphetamines, Methamphetamine • Depressants – Alcohol, Barbiturates, Benzodiazepines • Hallucinogens – LSD, PCP, Marijuana, Shrooms, Peyote • Narcotics– Heroin, Codeine, Morphine, Oxycodone Some “club drugs” … • Methylenedioxymethamphetamine or MDMA … aka ecstasy(stimulant) • Gamma-hydroxybutyrate or GHB … aka grievous bodily harm(depressant) • Flunitrazepam / Rohypnol … aka roofies (depressant) • Ketamine … aka special K(hallucinogen)

  5. Extent of Drug Use in USA • Major sources of information about drug use: • National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) -- national survey/interviews with approximately 70,000 randomly selected individuals aged 12 and older • Started in 1971, modified twice (1999 and 2002) • National and state-level estimates of the past month, past year, and lifetime use of tobacco, alcohol, illicit drugs, and non-medical use of prescription drugs

  6. Extent of Drug Use in USA • Major sources of information about drug use: • Monitoring the Future (MTF) -- national survey/interviews with approximately 50,000 randomly selected students in 8th, 10th and 12th graders • Started in 1975 (12th graders), added other grades in 1991 • National estimates of the past month, past year, and lifetime use of tobacco, alcohol, illicit drugs, and non-medical use of prescription drugs • Also measures disapproval and perceived harmfulness & availability

  7. Extent of Drug Use in US(NSDUH) • NSDUH findings: • Lifetime use: 114.3 million users (46.1% of pop.) • Mostly marijuana (40.6%) followed by psychotherapeutics (20.3%) • Past year use: 35.7 million users (14.4%) • Most marijuana (10.1%) followed by psychotherapeutics (6.6%) • Past month (current) use: 19.9 million users (8% of pop.)

  8. Extent of Drug Use in US(NSDUH) • Current use(NSDUH)

  9. Extent of Drug Use in US(NSDUH) • Current use(NSDUH)

  10. Extent of Drug Use in US(NSDUH) • Current use(NSDUH)

  11. Extent of Drug Use in US(NSDUH) • Current use(NSDUH)

  12. Extent of Drug Use in US(NSDUH) • Current use(NSDUH)

  13. Extent of Drug Use in US(NSDUH) • Current use(NSDUH)

  14. Extent of Drug Use in US(NSDUH) • Other interesting facts re current use (NSDUH): • Current use lower for full-time college students than non-students (but higher lifetime use for students) • Current use lowest for college grads • Current use lowest for full-time employed (but most users are employed) • Highest rates in the west, lowest in the south • Highest rates in cities, lowest in rural counties

  15. Extent of Drug Use in US(NSDUH) • Now more initiates of prescription drug use per year than marijuana!

  16. Extent of Drug Use in US(NSDUH) • Other interesting facts re current use (NSDUH): • 51.1% use alcohol • 23.3% binge drink (5 or more drinks at one setting at least once a month) • 6.9% heavy drink (5 or more drinks at one setting at least five times a month)

  17. Extent of Drug Use in US(NSDUH)

  18. Extent of Drug Use in US(NSDUH) • 28.6% use tobacco • 24.2% smoke cigarettes

  19. Extent of Drug Use in US(NSDUH) • Highest rates of smoking for 18-25 year olds (36.2%) versus 9.8% of 12-17 year olds

  20. Extent of Drug Use in US(NSDUH) • Other interesting facts re current use (NSDUH): • Users of alcohol and tobacco more likely to be current users of illicit drugs • Tobacco users about 9 times more likely … • Heavy drinkers about 12 times more likely …

  21. Extent of Drug Usein US (MTF) • MTF findings (12th, 10th, 8th graders) • Lifetime use: 47.4%, 34.1%, 19.6% • Past year use: 36.6%, 26.9%, 14.1% • Past month (current) use: 22.3%, 15.8%, 7.6% • Current use is higher among 12th graders for virtually every drug (one drug consistently higher for 8th graders)

  22. Extent of Drug Usein US (MTF) • MTF Prevalence of Current Use (12th graders): • Alcohol – 43.1% • Been drunk – 27.6% • Cigarettes – 20.4% • Marijuana – 19.4%

  23. Extent of Drug Usein US (MTF) • Smokeless tobacco – 6.5% • Narcotics – 3.8% (heroin – 0.4%) • Amphetamines – 2.9% (meth – 0.6%) • Sedatives – 2.8% • Tranquilizers – 2.6%

  24. Extent of Drug Usein US (MTF) • Hallucinogens – 2.2% (LSD – 1.1%) • Cocaine – 1.9% • Ecstasy – 1.8% • Inhalants – 1.4% • Steroids – 1%

  25. Extent of Drug Usein US (MTF) • Current use(MTF) Trend lines

  26. Extent of Drug Usein US (MTF) • Other interesting facts re current use (MTF): • Perceived harmfulness of drug use generally NOT up • Perceived disapproval of drug use generally NOT up • Perceived availability of drugs generally NOT down

  27. If we’re going to have a “war on drugs” which drugs should we pursue??? • Answer depends on …? • Degree of harm caused to individuals by drug use/abuse? • Degree of harm caused to families, communities and society by drug use/abuse? • Degree of dependence/addiction triggered by drug use experimentation? • If we used these criteria, on what drugs would we focus?

  28. If we’re going to have a “war on drugs” which drugs should we pursue??? http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140673607604644/fulltext

  29. We might also ask law enforcement … National Drug Intelligence Center: “Which drug poses the greatest threat in your area?”

  30. We might also ask law enforcement … National Drug Intelligence Center: “Which drug poses the greatest threat in your area?”

  31. Activity • What are discrepancies in descriptions of drugs from ONDCP and the Drug Policy Alliance/Safety First???