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Chapter 4: Arrangement of electrons in atoms. Unit 2 – Electrons and Periodic Behavior Cartoon courtesy of NearingZero.net. Cartoon courtesy of NearingZero.net. 4-1 Properties of Light. Electromagnetic radiation- is a form of energy that exhibits wavelike behavior as it travel through space.

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4 1 properties of light
4-1 Properties of Light
  • Electromagnetic radiation-is a form of energy that exhibits wavelike behavior as it travel through space.
  • Examples x-rays, UV, infrared light, microwaves, radio waves
  • Electromagnetic spectrum all electromagnetic radiation, arranged according to increasing wavelength.
Spectroscopic analysis of the visible spectrum…produces all of the colors in a continuous spectrum
  • Continuous spectrum- spectrum in which all wavelengths within a given range are included.
speed of light
Speed of Light
  • C = v
  • C= speed of light
  • 3.0 x 1010 cm/s
  • 3.0 x 108 m/s
  • = wavelength (m)
  • v= frequency (Hz)



E= h v
  • E= energy
  • h= Planck’s constant (6.626x10-34 J.S)
  • v= frequency
  • Quantum is a finite quantity of energy that can be gained or lost by an atom.
  • 1 quantum = 1 photon
Ground state is the state of lowest energy (stable)
  • Excited state has higher potential energy. Emits light.
  • Example Neon lights
wave particle duality
Wave-Particle Duality
  • JJ Thomson won the Nobel prize for describing the electron as a particle.
  • His son, George Thomson won the Nobel prize for describing the wave-like nature of the electron.
4 2 the quantum model of the atom
4-2 The Quantum Model of the Atom
  • Quantum Numbers
  • Each electron in an atom has a unique set of 4 quantum numbers which describe it.
  • Principal quantum number
  • Angular momentum (orbital) quantum number
  • Magnetic quantum number
  • Spin quantum number
principal quantum number
Principal Quantum Number
  • Generally symbolized by n, it denotes the shell (energy level/shell) in which the electron is located.




angular momentum quantum number
Angular Momentum Quantum Number
  • The angular momentum quantum number, generally symbolized by l, denotes the orbital (subshell) in which the electron is located (s,p,d,f).

l =0


l =2


l =1


magnetic quantum number
Magnetic Quantum Number
  • The magnetic quantum number, generally symbolized by m, denotes the orientation of the electron’s orbital with respect to the three axes in space (x,y,z). Have to split up p, d, f orbitals.
spin quantum number
Spin Quantum Number
  • Spin quantum number denotes the behavior (direction of spin) of an electron within a magnetic field.
  • Possibilities for electron spin: +1/2 or -1/2
4 3 electron configurations
4-3 Electron Configurations
  • Electron configuration is the arrangement of electrons in an atom.
  • Aufbau Principle states an electron occupies the lowest-energy orbital that can receive it.
pauli exclusion principle
Pauli Exclusion Principle

No 2 electrons in the same atom can have the same 4 quantum #’s

hund s rule
Hund’s Rule
  • States that orbital of equal energy are each occupied by 1 electron before any orbital is occupied by a 2nd electron. Fill in all the up arrows first.
orbital notation
Orbital Notation

x y z

x y z

x y z

noble gas notation
Noble Gas Notation
  • Is a shorthand configuration. Use the noble gas before the element and then continue with the electron-configuration notation.
  • Li= (He)2s1
  • Al= (Ne)3s23p1
work cited
Work Cited
  • “Aufbau principle chart and electron-configuration of O”. Drawings. Aug. 7, 2006. http://people.uis.edu/gtram1/organic/introduction/intro.htm
  • “Oxygen Lewis Dot”. Drawing. Aug. 7, 2006. http://edweb.tusd.k12.az.us/Secrist/teachers/rjones/what_we_have_accomplished_in_the.htm
  • “Wavelength diagram and prism diagram” Pictures. Aug. 7, 2006. http://eqseis.geosc.psu.edu/~cammon/HTML/Classes/PhysicalGeology/Notes/Chapter02/P03.html
  • “Orbital Notations”. Drawings. Aug, 7, 2006. http://www.chemistry.ohio-state.edu/~grandinetti/teaching/Chem121/lectures/periodic%20trends/ionization_energy.html
  • “xyz axis”. Drawing. Aug. 7, 2006. http://wine1.sb.fsu.edu/chm1045/notes/Struct/QMech/Struct05.htm
  • “Electron shape chart”. Chart. Aug. 7, 2006. http://wine1.sb.fsu.edu/chm1045/notes/Struct/QMech/Struct05.htm
  • “spd orbitals”. Drawing. Aug. 7, 2006. http://chemed.chem.purdue.edu/genchem/topicreview/bp/ch6/quantum.html
“Atom”. Drawing. Aug. 7, 2006. http://bioweb.wku.edu/courses/Biol115/Wyatt/Exam1/Quiz1/quiz1.htm
  • “Periodic Table”. Drawing. Aug. 7, 2006.http://www.epcc.edu/faculty/victors/elconfig.htm
  • “Route 66 sign”. Photo. Aug. 7, 2006. http://www.lightgod.com/led.asp?catid=865
  • “Neon Sign”. Photo. Aug. 7, 2006. http://www.neon-signage.com/
  • “Photo electric effect”. Picture. Aug. 7, 2006. http://www.pa.msu.edu/courses/1997spring/PHY232/lectures/quantum/photoelectric.html
  • “S,P,D,F blocks on periodic table”. Drawing. Aug. 8, 2006. http://wine1.sb.fsu.edu/chm1045/notes/Struct/EPeriod/Struct09.htm
  • “Wolfgang Pauli”. Photo. Aug. 8, 2006. http://www.homeoint.org/dynamis/synchro.htm
“Na and Cl lewis dot struture”. Drawing. Aug 8, 2006. http://www.d94.org/science/carrow/chemistry/interactions/calendar/notes/lewis.htm
  • Information. Aug 6, 2006. http://www.sciencegeek.net/Chemistry/Powerpoint/Unit2/Unit2_files/frame.htm
  • Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Modern Chemistry. Harcourt Brace & Company. 1999.