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The Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict. Jacob Dougherty [email protected] Geog 308: Russia and Eastern Europe Professor Zoltan Grossman University of Wisconsin- Eau Claire Spring 2005. www.cac-biodiversity.org/ aze/aze\_culture.htm . Where is Nagorno-Karabakh?.

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the nagorno karabakh conflict

The Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict

Jacob Dougherty

[email protected]

Geog 308: Russia and Eastern Europe

Professor Zoltan Grossman

University of Wisconsin- Eau Claire

Spring 2005

www.cac-biodiversity.org/ aze/aze_culture.htm

where is nagorno karabakh
Where is Nagorno-Karabakh?
  • Located in the southeastern part of Caucasus Minor
  • Landscape very mountainous and rugged
  • Enclave within political boundaries of Azerbaijan
  • Agricultural economy

http://www.eurasianet.org/departments/culture/articles/eav050903.shtml#

armenia azerbaijan during the pre soviet and early soviet era
Armenia/Azerbaijan During the Pre-Soviet and Early Soviet Era
  • 1813- Russian Empire takes control of Caucasus region; Azeri Turks emigrate from Nagorno-Karabakh; Armenian population grows
  • 1917- Russian Revolution; Armenia and Azerbaijan declare independence, fight for control over Karabakh
  • 1920- Soviet Red Army intervenes; Transcaucasian SFSR formed (Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan)
  • 1921- Azerbaijan SSR cedes Karabakh region to Armenian SSR

www.angelfire.com/.../ ru_transcaucasia1923c.gif

why did stalin give nagorno karabakh to azerbaijan
Why did Stalin give Nagorno-Karabakh to Azerbaijan?
  • Gerrymandering: Stalin wanted to pit the ethnic groups in the South Caucasus regions against each other
    • Thus, Karabakh was placed within Azerbaijan SSR, and Nagorno-Karabakh was given autonomy within Azerbaijan, creating the modern border of the region (1924)
    • Stalin made concessions to Azerbaijan SSR because of its economic importance, specifically its oil resources

www.lib.utexas.edu/.../ azerbaijan_ssr.90.jpg

the soviet era
The Soviet Era
  • Azeri policy of systematic removal of Armenians from Karabakh
    • From 1923 to 1979, Armenian population reduced from 150,000 to 120,000, while the Azeri population increased from 7,500 to 38,000
    • Demographic change exacerbates conflict
    • Azeri Communist leader Heydar Aliyev, with strong nationalist sentiments, claims the right of Azerbaijan over Nagorno-Karabakh; result is thousands of Armenian displaced persons from 1968 to 1988

www.chgs.umn.edu/.../ armenia31b.jpg

perestroika and the drive for independence
Perestroika and the Drive for Independence

Azeri groups also organize and protest Soviet rule and concessions to Armenia, 1989

  • Armenian minority given no rights to organize before Perestroika; suddenly after Perestroika Armenian protests against Azerbaijan SSR begin in Karabakh (75% of population) and Armenia

www.ayfwest.org/.../ protests/protests_89.jpg

1988 1991 key years
1988-1991: Key Years
  • 1988- Nagorno-Karabakh autonomous government votes by referendum to unify with Armenia
  • 1989- Azerbaijan blockades Armenian fuel and supply lines over Karabakh issue
  • Azeri troops try to keep control of region, Armenian rebels fight for irredentism; true military fighting begins, 1989
moscow gets involved
Moscow Gets Involved
  • 1990- Violent Azeri protests against Armenia in Sumgait and Baku (Azerbaijan) prompt Moscow to deploy troops, occupy Baku
  • Azeri militia and Soviet forces target Armenian paramilitaries operating in Nagorno-Karabakh, Moscow sends troops to Yerevan (Armenia)
  • 1991- Moscow suddenly withdraws support from Azerbaijan and Soviet troops leave Nagorno-Karabakh
the results of soviet withdrawal
The Results of Soviet Withdrawal
  • October 1991- Referendum in Nagorno-Karabakh approves independence, eventual union with Armenia
  • Violence increases dramatically after Soviet withdrawal
    • Over 30,000 killed in fighting between 1992-94
    • Armenian forces seize Susha (historically Azeri city) and Lachin (links Karabakh to Armenia)
    • UN Security Council calls for an end to hostilities, withdrawal of Armenian forces from occupied areas of Azerbaijan
images of war
Images of War

http://www.ndu.edu/inss/Strategic%20Assessments/sa95/gifs/photo003.gif

http://www.travel-images.com/az-armenian.jpg

cease fire 1994
Cease-Fire, 1994
  • Russia brokered a cease-fire between Armenia and Azerbaijan in 1994
  • The cease-fire has not been successful, as the goals of both sides have not been met
    • Armenia occupies 20% of Azeri territory, including territory outside of Karabakh; still demands independence for Karabakh
    • Azerbaijan demands its right to self-determination, the end of the occupation and the return of Karabakh to Azerbaijan; perceives Russia as aiding Orthodox Armenia

http://www.azer.com/aiweb/categories/magazine/51_folder/51_articles/51_044.html

legacy of the conflict
Legacy of the Conflict
  • Over 400 people have died each year since the cease-fire in Nagorno-Karabakh due to the continued conflict
  • The plight of refugees
    • Over 1 million displaced Azeris in Azerbaijan
    • Refugee camps unable to supply refugees with clean water, food
    • Lack of assistance from Moscow, the West
the role of oil
The Role of Oil
  • Nagorno-Karabakh is essential to both the Baku-Supsa and the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan (BTC) oil pipeline routes
    • Baku-Supsa route (starting in Baku and going through Georgia to the Black Sea) avoids Nagorno-Karabakh and Armenia
    • Armenians discuss interrupting the flow of oil as retaliation
    • BTC route also avoids Armenian territory, but goes through territory of two Armenian rivals (Georgia and Turkey)
conclusion
Conclusion
  • No end to conflict in sight
    • Both sides unwilling to make concessions
    • “Primordial” claims over territory by both sides
    • The unsolved problem of what to do with refugees
    • Continued fighting despite cease-fire
    • Russia claiming to uphold cease-fire while arming Armenia; U.S. making oil deals with Azerbaijan
    • Building of oil pipelines likely to upset Armenia

http://www.azer.com/aiweb/categories/karabakh/karabakh_index.html

sources
Sources

“Nagorno-Karabakh”

Found at http://www.wws.princeton.edu/~wws401c/1998/nk.html

“Karabakh Conflict”

Found at http://www.azer.com/aiweb/categories/karabakh/karabakh_current/keywest_history.html

“The Office of the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic in the USA”

Found at http://www.nkrusa.org/country_profile/geography.html

“The World Factbook”

Found at http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geog/aj.htm

“Armenian Embassy: Nagorno-Karabakh Peace Process”

Found at http://www.armeniaemb.org/ArmeniaUS/NKPeaceProcess/NKConflictBrief.htm

“Nagorno-Karabakh: A Case Study”

Found at http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?frd/cstdy:@field(DOCIDtaz0024)

Goldman, Dr. Minton F. Russia, the Eurasian Republics, and Central/Eastern Europe. 9th Ed. Guilford: McGraw-Hill/Dushkin, 2003. 67-69.

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