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Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict in Azerbaijan. Phil Vandenberg. www.azerb.com. Overview. General Information Past conflict Ceasefire Current situation. www.azerb.com. Nagorno-Karabakh (General Info). “Mountainous Black Garden” – Azeri Artsakh “Manly Sak” - Armenian Rugged region

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nagorno karabakh conflict in azerbaijan

Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict in Azerbaijan

Phil Vandenberg

www.azerb.com

overview
Overview
  • General Information
  • Past conflict
  • Ceasefire
  • Current

situation

www.azerb.com

nagorno karabakh general info
Nagorno-Karabakh (General Info)
  • “Mountainous Black Garden” – Azeri

Artsakh “Manly Sak” - Armenian

  • Rugged region
    • Mountain ranges reaching an altitude of 3,700 m (12,000 ft.)
    • Higher elevations have little or no vegetation
  • Mild lower climates with dense vegetation

Nagorno-Karabakhregion

www.azerb.com

general info cont
General Info Cont.
  • Population of about 130,000
  • 4,400 square kilometers
  • Economy is based mostly on copper mining and agriculture
    • Cattle
    • Vineyards
    • Orchards
    • Wheat
    • Veggies
    • Cotton
history of nagorno karabakh
History of Nagorno-Karabakh
  • Ethnic Armenian “time bomb” region created by Stalin
  • Incorporated into Azerbaijan in 1921 by Stalin
  • Problems began immediately
  • Major conflicts in the late 1940s
    • Armenia proposed annexing Karabakh but was denied
    • Repatriated Armenians forced around 100,000 Azeris out of Armenia
recent history
Recent History
  • February 1988 – Armenia requested that Karabakh be transferred to Armenian control (REJECTED)
  • Azerbaijan sends request to Moscow to repatriate ethnic Azeris and Armenians on both sides
  • Over 200,000 Azeris living in Armenia are forced out of country
  • End of February 1988 – violence erupts between Azeris and Armenians in city of Sumgait (Soviet troops called in)
more recent history
More Recent History
  • November 1988 – more violence
    • Tens of thousands expelled from both countries
    • Massacres on both sides
  • Break-up of Soviet Union in 1991
    • Full-scale war breaks loose
khojaly
Khojaly
  • About 7,000 citizens
  • Early 1992 the city was attacked by Armenian troops for several weeks
  • February 25, 1992- Armenian troops forced citizens to escape the city
  • Troops positioned in hills shot at fleeing Azeris

www.azerb.com

khojaly continued
Khojaly continued
  • Estimated 450 – 1,000 men, women and children slaughtered
  • Over 1,200 taken hostage
  • Town burned
  • Date was 4-year anniversary of Armenian massacres in Sumgait

http://www.angelfire.com/fl/fialochka/karabakh.html

ceasefire
Ceasefire
  • May 1994
  • At time of ceasefire:
    • Over 20,000 dead
    • Over 1,000,000 refugees
    • Estimated $60 billion in damages
  • Russia helping to mediate
  • Both countries observing… mostly
    • Armenian troops occupy Karabakh and non-Armenian areas around it

Image from: http://newhouse.syr.edu/alexia/archives/1998/bradner/bradportnew18.html

images of refugees
Images of Refugees

http://www.angelfire.com/fl/fialochka/karabakh.html

current situation
Current Situation
  • Karabakh Armenians have declared independence
    • Not actually recognized by any other countries
    • Goal is to join Armenia
  • Nagorno-Karabakh government controls about 14,000 km², including a “corridor” to Armenia
no man s land
No Man’s Land
  • 1 Km wide expanse between Azeri and Karabakh-Armenian forces
  • Networks of wire fencing and minefields
  • Well-dug, concrete-reinforced bunkers and trenches
  • Excavated tank ditches
  • Regular exchange of sniper fire
solutions
Solutions
  • Honor Karabakh’s claim to independence and leave them alone
  • Continue fighting and hope to win all land back (or even just the land outside of Karabakh)
  • Cut deal with Armenia giving them most or all of Karabakh and a gateway to it

No matter what the solution, refugees need to be housed more suitably

works cited
Works Cited
  • “Azerbaijan – International Disputes.” A to Z of Azerbaijan. Azerb.com. http://www.azerb.com
  • Google Images. http://images.google.com
  • “Karabakh – Heartland of Azerbaijan.” Yusif Akhundov. http://www.angelfire.com/fl/fialochka/karabakh.html
  • “Karabakh – Tragedy of the 20th Century.” Fariz’s Home Page. http://fismailzade.web.wesleyan.edu/index.html
  • “Nagorno Karabakh.” A to Z of Azerbaijan. Azerb.com. http://www.azerb.com
  • “The United States and Nagorno-Karabakh.” Fact Sheet. U.S. Department of State Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs. http://www.state.gov/p/eur/rls/fs/13502.htm
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