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Meteorology. Study of the Atmosphere. Atmosphere. Layers of gasses/tiny particles that surround Earth. Meteorology. Study of the Atmosphere (Ex- Why is sky red ?). Weather. Condition of the atmosphere at a particular time and place Temperature, air movements, moisture.

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  1. Meteorology Study of the Atmosphere

  2. Atmosphere • Layers of gasses/tiny particles that surround Earth.

  3. Meteorology • Study of the Atmosphere (Ex- Why is sky red?)

  4. Weather • Condition of the atmosphere at a particular time and place • Temperature, air movements, moisture

  5. Atmospheric Composition (pie chart)

  6. Air Pressure Definition • Force of air on the surface of the earth • Can look at it 2 ways: • AP = (# of air molecules) / (Area) • AP = (# of collisions) / (Area)

  7. How can we show Air Pressure?

  8. 3 Ways to Change Air Pressure • Change Volume • Change # of molecules • Change Temperature

  9. Barometer-Measures atmospheric pressure.

  10. Mercurial Barometer • “Mercurial” comes from the fact that many used mercury as the liquid in the barometer • Air pressure pushes on liquid and squeezes it up a certain height (giving pressure)

  11. Aneroid Barometer

  12. Atmospheric Layers • Layers in sky based on different temperature (Usually defined by altitude). • There is not an exact change on a line between each layer, but more of a gradual shift.

  13. Troposphere • Closest to Earth, where all weather occurs • Temperature drops by about 6.5oC/km due to increase distance from heat absorbed by earth. • Top of this layer is Tropopause, where temp is constant

  14. Stratosphere • Goes from top of troposphere to about 50 km. • Most of the Ozone (03) is here. • Temp increases due to absorption of sunlight by O3 molecules. • Top is Stratopause where temp is constant

  15. Mesosphere • Goes from top of Stratosphere to about 80km. • Temp starts to decrease again and this is the coldest layer (up to -90oC). • Top is Mesopause

  16. Thermosphere • Top of Mesosphere to outter space • Increase b/c N and O atoms absorb solar energy (like the O3 in the Stratosphere) • Temp as much as 2000oC

  17. Ionosphere • 80-550 km • Solar rays strike atoms in the layer, striping electrons causing them to become ions

  18. Exosphere • 550km-outer space (more than 1000km)

  19. Solar Energy • All of the waves of energy that come from the sun (everything form EM Spectrum)

  20. Electromagnetic Spectrum

  21. Visible Wavelengths

  22. Radiation • Energy from sun that travels to Earth as waves

  23. Reflection vs Scattering

  24. Scattering • The shorter the wavelength, the more likely it is to be scattered. • Longer wavelengths are more easily reflected.

  25. HW • Why does the sky sometimes appear blue, othertimes red, and sometimes white? • Explain Each…

  26. Why is sky Red during sunset? • Annimation • Youtube Video

  27. Why does the sky appear white sometimes? • A lot of moisture in atmosphere will cause all particles to scatter, or if there is no cloud cover and if the sun is overhead, the sun will look whitish because all visible light passes to your eye. • But don’t look directly at the sun!

  28. Absorption • Any solar energy that is NOT reflected is absorbed.

  29. All Energy Reaching Earth • Energy that reaches Earth is eitherreflectedorabsorbed • How much is reflected or absorbed depends on surface • The fraction that is reflected is calledalbedo

  30. Albedo • This determines the level of reflectivity of a substance. • The higher the Albedo number, the more reflective a substance is. • Examples: • Snow albedo = 95 (95% reflected, 5% absorbed) • Forest albedo = 10 (10% reflected, 90% aborbed) • Grass albedo = 26 (26% reflected, 74% aborbed)

  31. Other Reasons Temp Varies Throughout the Planet • Latitude (hottest on the equator due to more direct sunlight)

  32. Other Reasons Temp Varies Throughout the Planet • Altitude (Colder at higher elevations due to less moisture and air molecules to absorb heat)

  33. Other Reasons Temp Varies Throughout the Planet • Bodies of Water (Water abosorbs heat well and therefore areas around water have more moderate temperature ranges)

  34. Greenhouse Effect • Trapping of infrared heat by gas molecules reflecting infared heat in the atmosphere back to earth. • These infared rays are reflected back to earth where the warm earth’s surface again.

  35. Why is some energy reflected back? • Let’s draw a diagram

  36. 3 Views on Global Warming due to increase in greenhouse effect. • Nat Geo • Glen Beck • Past President of the United States

  37. 3 Ways Heat Moves

  38. Conduction: Heat transfer by direct contact

  39. Convection: heat transfer by air current

  40. In your notes make a prediction. • What will happen if you hold a balloon of Air and a balloon of water over a flame? • WHY!

  41. Let’s Try a Demonstration! • Why does one balloon pop in the flame and the other does not? Explain in scientific terms!

  42. But WHY are all the wind patterns curved and not straight? • Coriolis Effect…

  43. Let’s see what you know? • Turn to a blank page in your notes…

  44. Where could this sunset be and why is it not red?

  45. Label Conduction, Radiation, Convection

  46. What types of energy is blocked by the ozone layer?

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