Name the emperor responsible for building the baths? Who was HE? [ACH] Hadrian Ruled Roman Empire at is political and cultural pinnacle. 117-138, one of the “5 good emperors”, a helenophile (lover of greek culture), philosopher, Responsible for much important building including Hadrian’s wall in Britain, Hadrian’s Villa in Tivoli, the Pantheon in Rome, the Baths in Leptis Magna
Where is Leptis Magna? What does its name mean? When was it built? [ACH] Libya, North Africa (a Roman colony) Magna=Great, Lectis or Leptis=inlet or harbour (from Phoenician) AD 126/7
What two races would have been inhabited 2nd Century Leptis [ACH] Romans Carthaginians, (or Phoenicians)
Discuss TWO methods used to heat the caldarium. [ACH] Hypocausts = furnaces were located directly behind the caldarium and the floor was raised to allow the circulation of hot air underneath. Caldarium was placed at the southern end of the complex to take full advantage of the afternoon sun. Windows of the caldarium were placed at the southern end of the complex to take full advantage of the afternoon sun.
What was the function of the frigidarium? The Palaestra? The Natatio? [ACH] Frigidarium: is where people would go to cool down after exercising / to close pores after the caldarium OR it was the cold room of the thermae/ it had cold plunge pools Palaestra: Outdoor running track/gymnasium Natatio: The outdoor swimming pool.
Give two ways these baths differ from those built in the Republican period [ACH] Bilateral symmetry No womens’ section (women had specific times to use the baths) Large (about 100m by 90m (–excluding the Palaestra)
How were women accomdated in these baths. Why not just have one side for men and the other for women? [ACH] Women came to bathe at different times. Women in ancient times got much less than a ½ share in public life.
Describe FOUR of the features that make the Frigidarium a magnificent room. [MER] -Walls covered with marble -Walls lined with statues -Ceiling had cross-vaults -Vaults decorated with mosaics There were lunette shaped windows (in the arched space created by each vault) -Roofline was slightly higher than that of the surrounding chambers to allow for the inclusion of a clerestory /windows -The plunge baths at either end of the frigidarium were surrounded by black, marble columns and / or statues
Describe THREE features of this structure that were typical of imperial baths [MER] The baths followed the traditional hot to cold bathing process They were lavishly decorated They did not have a separate section for women They were large because they were for public (not private) use They were publicly owned They were symmetrically arranged along a north /south axis line OR They followed a rigid bilateral symmetry The rooms on either side of the line are similar / symmetrical
In what ways did this structure provide good propaganda for the emperor who was responsible for its construction? (4 at least) [EXC] -Hadrian’s baths were an essential amenity to city life. (Roman citizens went to the public baths on a daily basis.) By building these, Hadrian was providing a public service that the inhabitants would be grateful for. -By building these baths the emperor shows that he cares for every part of the empire / even distant parts. -The Baths were a good opportunity to show off advanced Roman technology eg hypocaust. Hadrian paid for the baths therefore: -An opportunity for Hadrian to show his generosity -Wealth symbolised the power of Rome / the power of the emperor -Wealth symbolised political stability of the empire -The baths provided an opportunity for the Romans and local people to socialise together.