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Math 210G Mathematics Appreciation Dr. Joe Lakey. website: http://www.math.nmsu.edu/~jlakey/home.html phone : 505-646-2417 office: Science Hall 230. Theories of disease. Ancient historical view: spontaneous generation

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math 210g mathematics appreciation dr joe lakey

Math 210G Mathematics AppreciationDr. Joe Lakey

website: http://www.math.nmsu.edu/~jlakey/home.html

phone: 505-646-2417

office: Science Hall 230

theories of disease
Theories of disease
  • Ancient historical view: spontaneous generation
  • Atharvaveda: ancient Hindu text deals with medicine. Identifies causes of disease as living causative agents
  • Earliest western references: “On Agriculture” by Marcus Terentius Varro (c. 36 BC): “...and because there are bred certain minute creatures which cannot be seen by the eyes, which float in the air and enter the body through the mouth and nose and there cause serious diseases.”
slide4

Avicenna (1020 AD) : bodily secretion contaminated by foul foreign earthly bodies before being infected; contagious nature of tuberculosis/infectious diseases; introduced quarantine

slide5

Black Death bubonic plague 14th century

  • Ibn Khatima: hypothesized infectious diseases caused by "minute bodies”
  • Ibn al-Khatib: “On the Plague”:
  • ”…notices how he who establishes contact with the afflicted gets the disease, whereas he who is not in contact remains safe, and how transmission is affected through garments, vessels and earrings."
slide8

Girolamo Fracastoro (1546): epidemics caused by “transferable seedlike entities” direct or indirect contact OR long distances.

  • Francesco Redi (1668): proof against spontaneous generation. 3 jars. meat loaf. (1) open, (2) covered with gauze (3) sealed. After a few days…
  • (1) covered by maggots, (2) maggots on surface of the gauze (3) none.
  • maggots only on surfaces accessible by flies.
  • No spontaneous generation
agostino bassi 1773 1856
Agostino Bassi (1773-1856)
  • Credited with “germ theory” of disease
  • observations on muscardine disease of silkworms. 1835: blamed deaths of insects on a contagious, living agent, visible to the naked eye powdery spores
slide10

Ignaz Semmelweis (1818-1865) Hungarian obstetrician Vienna's Allgemeines Krankenhaus in 1847,

  • high incidence of death from puerperal fever amongst women who delivered at the hospital (30%.)
  • physicians had usually come directly from autopsies.
  • made doctors wash their hands with water and lime … reducing mortality from childbrith < 2%
  • theories were viciously attacked by most of the Viennese medical establishment.
john snow
John Snow
  • 1854 Broad Street cholera outbreak
  • miasma (Greek: "pollution") "bad air"
  • germ theory: microorganisms
  • Snow: “statistical” analysis
john snow letter to the editor of the medical times and gazette
—John Snow, letter to the editor of the Medical Times and Gazette
  • “… nearly all the deaths had taken place within a short distance of the [Broad Street] pump… only ten deaths in houses situated decidedly nearer to another street-pump. In five of these … they always sent to the pump in Broad Street…. In three other cases, the deceased were children who went to school near the pump in Broad Street... With regard to the deaths occurring in the locality belonging to the pump, there were 61 instances in which I was informed that the deceased persons used to drink the pump water from Broad Street, either constantly or occasionally...
  • The result of the inquiry, then, is, that there has been no particular outbreak or prevalence of cholera in this part of London except among the persons who were in the habit of drinking the water of the above-mentioned pump well.
  • I had an interview with the Board of Guardians of St James's parish, on the evening of the 7th inst [Sept 7], and represented the above circumstances to them. In consequence of what I said, the handle of the pump was removed on the following day.
light microscope
Light microscope
  • ~1590, two Dutch spectacle makers, Zaccharias Janssen and his son Hans, while experimenting with several lenses in a tube, discovered that nearby objects appeared greatly enlarged.
  • 1609, Galileo, … heard of these early experiments, worked out the principles of lenses, and made a much better instrument with a focusing device.
  • Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723) …taught himself new methods for grinding and polishing tiny lenses of great curvature … magnifications up to 270 diameters, … He was the first to see and describe bacteria, yeast plants, the teeming life in a drop of water, and the circulation of blood corpuscles in capillaries.
  • Robert Hooke, the English father of microscopy, re-confirmed Anton van Leeuwenhoek's discoveries of the existence of tiny living organisms in a drop of water. Hooke made a copy of Leeuwenhoek's light microscope and then improved upon his design.
the microscope
The microscope
  • first microscope was made around 1595 in Middleburg, Holland
  • Galileo Galilei's compound microscope in 1625
  • Hooke’s (pictured)
slide20

… discovered bacteria observing plaque between his own teeth

…under a microscope

On September 17, 1683, Leeuwenhoek wrote to Royal Society,

"a little white matter, which is as thick as if 'twere batter."

Repeated observations on … presumably wife and daughter…,

and on two old men who had never cleaned their teeth

… "I then most always saw, with great wonder, that in the said matter there were many very little living animalcules, very prettily a-moving. … The biggest sort. . . had a very strong and swift motion, and shot through the water (or spittle) like a pike does through the water. The second sort. . . oft-times spun round like a top. . . and these were far more in number."

slide21
Van Leeuwenhoek’s discovery of bacteria was not immediately accepted by scientists. …

… the Society appointed two scientists - Nehemiah Grew, the plant anatomist and Robert Hooke, the microscopist. First time they failed, casting doubts on his report. However, Hooke again tried using a microscope with 330 X (power of magnification) and confirmed Leeuwenhoek’s success. Both scientists confirmed that their observations were similar to those described in the letters by Leeuwenhoek.

Now, the Royal Society accepted Leeuwenhoek as scientist and declared him as the discoverer of bacteria.

louis pasteur 1822 1895
Louis Pasteur (1822-1895)
  • (1860-1864) fermentation and growth of microorganisms in nutrient broths.
  • Filters stop particles passing through to the growth medium: no growth implies no spontaneous generation
robert koch 1843 1910
Robert Koch (1843-1910)
  • First to devise proofs to verify germ theory.
  • Koch's Postulates (1875) demonstrated anthrax caused Bacillus anthracis.
  • Postulates still used today to help determine if newly discovered disease caused by a microorganism.
slide24
Casimir Davaine (1850s) bacterium= "rod"or "staff".
  • 3 types:
  • bacillus; rectangular with sharply rounded ends, which varies in diameter between 20 µm and 0.5 µm.
  • coccus; which resembles two tiny beans lying face to face. This type of bacteria is about 0.5 µm in diameter.
  • spiral, which is about 15 µm in length.
viruses are small
Viruses are small

Pasteur: could not find “the germ” some diseases, such as rabies (and common cold, mumps, measles and polio)

  • Rabies :almost always fatal. Noted weakened extract of tissue infected with rabies might be protective against the disease, even after a person had been bitten.
slide27
Pasteur 1885 applied extract 9-year-old Joseph Meister who had been bitten by a rabid dog. Vaccine worked. Joseph Meister lived another 55 years.
  • Pasteur hypothesized rabies due to small bacteria.
jenner 1749 1823 smallpox
Jenner (1749-1823) : smallpox
  • 18th-c. Europe ~ 95 % pop. contracted smallpox at some point in their lives
  • as many as one in 10 died of it.
  • New World: wiped out millions of Native Americans.
  • Edward Jenner (1796): milkmaids got cowpox (milder) but rarely smallpox.
  • Could exposure to cowpox protect against smallpox as well?
slide29

Smallpox: survivors thereafter immune.

  • Jenner: cowpox imply smallpox immunity?
  • Tested on a healthy 8-year-old James Phipps: pus from milkmaid's cowpox sore, scratched into the boy's arm. Small infected spot soon subsided.
  • 6 weeks later: inoculated Phipps with smallpox. Phips never contracted smallpox.
slide32
Germ theory accepted by late 19th century
  • Dmitri Ivanovsky (1892) tobacco mosaic disease, … was clearly infectious; …Hoping to find bacteria Ivanovsky ran extract of diseased leaves through filter, … pores small enough to trap any known bacteria…caused ….went right through …liquid retained the power to infect other plants.
  • Ivanovsky published findings… little attention was paid …
  • Martinus Beijerinck (1898) … same experiments … same results
  • infectious agent destroyed when the liquid was heated.
  • Beijerinck concluded agent was a "contagious living fluid."
  • Beijerinck (as Jenner) used the term "virus" (Latin for poison or pestilence.
  • hoof-and-mouth disease, yellow fever, … were also caused by these "filterable viruses."
  • .
  • 1930s filters with pores tiny enough to prove that viruses are particulate after all, rather than being fluid in nature.
  • The earliest electron microscopes also appeared in the 1930s, and viruses could at last be seen.
  • Today we know that viruses are not living cells like bacteria, but rather tiny packets of genetic material that must infect the cells of their unwilling host in order to reproduce.
viruses are small33
Viruses are small

Largest viruses ~ 1/10 typical bacteria ~ 0.2–2.0 µm

  • NOT simply miniature bacteria
slide34
Ångström (1868) : wavelength of electromagnetic radiation in multiples of one ten-millionth of a millimetre,
  • (Ångström unit)
  • Humans: 4,000 å (violet) to 7,000 å (dark red) so the use of the ångström as a unit provided
electron microscope
Electron microscope
  • uses electrons to illuminate specimen and create image.
  • can magnify specimens up to 2 million times,
  • best light microscopes : 2000 times. Both electron and light microscopes have resolution limitations, imposed by their wavelength.
  • wavelength of an electron much smaller than that of a light photon
  • electrostatic and electromagnetic lenses … by controlling electron beam ..in a manner similar to lenses in light microscope
smallpox
Smallpox
  • Smallpox (430 BC? - 1979):
  • 30 to 35 % mortality rate
  • Smallpox killed an estimated 60 million Europeans, including five reigning European monarchs, in the 18th century alone.
  • and most of the native inhabitants of the Americas 90 to 95 %
  • Killed more than 300 million people worldwide in the 20th century alone,
spanish flu
Spanish flu
  • Spanish Flu (1918 - 1919): (2.4 % to 5% of world population at the time);
  • Killed 50 to 100 million people worldwide in less than 2 years
  • WWI blamed as factor in its spread
  • …more people than Hitler, nuclear weapons and all the terrorists of history combined.
  • The pandemic came and went like a flash…in the United States a quarter of the nation's population -- and a billion people worldwide -- had been infected
cholera
Cholera
  • Cholera (1817 - today): (bacterium Vibrio cholerae.)
  • 8 pandemics; hundreds of thousands killed worldwide
  • Transmission to humans occurs through ingesting contaminated water or food
  • The major cholera pandemics are generally listed as: First: 1817-1823, Second: 1829-1851, Third: 1852-1859, Fourth: 1863-1879, Fifth: 1881-1896, Sixth: 1899-1923: Seventh: 1961- 1970, and some would argue that we are in the Eighth: 1991 to the present. Each pandemic, save the last, was accompanied by many thousands of deaths. As recently as 1947, 20,500 of 30,000 people infected in Egypt died. Despite modern medicine, cholera remains an efficient killer.
typhus
Typhus
  • Typhus (430 BC? - today) (bacterial)
  • Charles Nicolle 1909 : lice were the vectors for epidemic typhus.
  • Killed 3 million people between 1918 and 1922 alone
  • Common major outbreaks during wars
  • .Following the development of a vaccine during World War II epidemics occur only in Eastern Europe, the Middle East and parts of Africa.
malaria
Malaria
  • Malaria (1600 - today):
  • Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites transmitted by female Anopheles mosquitoes (plasmodium)
  • widespread in tropical and subtropical regions
  • about 400–900 million cases of fever and approximately one to three million deaths annually —
  • little change in which areas are at risk of this disease since 1992.
  • death rate could double in the next twenty years.
  • the majority of cases are undocumented.
slide44
AIDS
  • AIDS (1981 - today): (retrovirus)
  • Killed 25 million people worldwide: one of the most destructive epidemics in recorded history
  • first recognized in 1981,
  • claimed approximately 3.1 million in 2005, including 570,000 were children.
  • There are an estimated 40.3 million (estimated range between 36.7 and 45.3 million) people now living with HIV.
  • The key facts surrounding this origin of AIDS are currently unknown, particularly where and when the pandemic began, though it is said that it originated from the apes in Africa.