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Thermodynamics. Kinetics. Structure. Synthesis. Energy. Power. Safety. Cost and Long Life. Corrosion/packaging design-bipolar. Ideas. Chemical Storage Science: Panel co-leads: Steve Visco & Stan Whittingham. More than Li-Ion. M. S. Whittingham, Chem. Rev. 104 , 4271, (2004).

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chemical storage science panel co leads steve visco stan whittingham








Cost and Long Life

Corrosion/packaging design-bipolar


Chemical Storage Science: Panel co-leads:Steve Visco & Stan Whittingham

More than Li-Ion

M. S. Whittingham, Chem. Rev. 104, 4271, (2004)

Discovery Research Use-inspired Basic Research

systems scientific challenges can new ideas overcome them
Systems scientific challenges:Can new ideas overcome them?

Lithium Based Batteries

Non-Lithium Based Batteries

Is intercalation still the key?

LiTiS2 - LiCoO2 - LiMn2O4 - LiFePO4

1973 1991

Why not more than 1 Li/redox ion?

VSe2 - Li2VSe2; VOPO4-Li2VOPO4

Can reconstructive reactions work?

Li/CuF2 nanocomposite

What about new concepts?

3d cells

Can sodium be extended beyond utilities?

- Na/S - Zebra - beta alumina (Ford-1967)

What about magnesium and aluminum

Can zinc-air be made to work?

- High polarization

- Zinc plating

- The air cathode

What about flow systems?

- Zinc/bromine

- Bipolar technology

Need new ideas - transformational changes

G. Amatucci, J. Fluorine Chem, 128, 243 (2007)

materials scientific challenges can priority research thrusts solve them
Materials scientific challenges:Can priority research thrusts solve them



What is the ideal anode?

Can we ever solve the metal electroplating problem (lithium and other metals)?

Must Li always be contained in another substance?

- Carbon:

- Titanium oxide spinels

- Sn, Si: can they be made to work

What is the ideal cathode?

Is intercalation the only answer?

Can theory predict the ideal composition?

- Li1+x(MnzNiyCo1-y-z)1-xO2

Can characterization tell us exactly what happens in a cycling cell?

- Which ions move, how, where and why?

- Which ions oxidize/reduce first?



Charge-transfer at solid-solid interfaces?

- Can we ever have an all solid-state cell?

What is the optimum scenario for charge transfer in composite electrodes?

Can we engineer and control the SEI layer?

What is the ideal electrolyte?

Can solvent-less systems be used?

- Is there a role for ionic liquids?

Is research on polymers over?

The role of additives and redox couples?

materials do nanomaterials differ from micro
Materials:Do nanomaterials differ from micro?

SONY nano-tin anode

Lithium iron phosphate

Phase behavior different

- Nano shows single phase behavior

• Much enhanced cycling capacity

- “Bulk” shows two phase behavior

Phase behavior different

- Nano shows some single phase behavior

• Enhanced power capability

- “Bulk” shows two phase behavior

Potential scientific impact

Is nano the answer?

- are there reactivity issues?

Address the challenges?

New scientific discoveries?

M. S. Whittingham, J. Mater. Chem., in press (data from Kim &Kim)

Quan Fan, Binghamton PhD Thesis

materials and systems fundamental properties
Materials and Systems:Fundamental properties


Liquid Components

System - well studied

Materials - essentially no data today

- FePO4 phases, stability range

- Oxygen partial pressure of MO2

- The Electrolyte

Viscosity, volatility, conductivity relationship


Reactivity (beyond redox)

- Ionic liquids (e.g. acid-base)

- Intercalation (into electrodes)

Ionic Mobility

Synthesis and Reactivity

The ‘real’ ionic mobility of key species

- as function of state of charge

The mobility of phase boundaries?

Structural ions during charge/discharge

- Ni in Li(MnCoNi)O2

- Cr in Li(Li0.2Cr0.4Mn0.4)O2

- Impact on electrochemistry

Impact of Synthesis on atomic order

- LiNiMnO2

- LiFePO4

- Control of morphology


- Controlled formation of films

- With cell components, current collectors

chemical storage science addressing the scientific challenges
Chemical Storage Science:Addressing the scientific challenges


The Anode/Electrolye/Interface

The Cathode

Glenn Amatucci

Khalil Amine

Yet-Ming Chiang

Martin Winter

Austen Angell

Richard Jow

Linda Nazar

Michael Thackeray

Debra Rolison (w)

Atsuo Yamada

Theory and Modeling - Materials & Systems

Characterization Challenges

Gerbrand Ceder

Ann Marie Sastry (w)

Venkat Srinivasan

Clare Grey

Heike Gabrisch

Robert Kostecki (w)

Rosa Palacin

Bold = sub-panel leader and writer. (w) = writer